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18 Century TheEnlightenmentCH 17 PART I The Inspiration of the Enlightenment Isaac Newton 1642 1727 . John Locke 1632 1704 Scientific Revolution Persuaded natural philosophers and many other writersthat the traditions of thought inherited from both theancient and medieval Christian worlds were incorrect or.confused and needed to be challenged Newtonian Physics brought a mechanical andmathematical rationality to the physical world If the natural world was rational Society too should beorganized rationally. The Inspiration of the Enlightenment The Scientific Revolution Better understanding ofphysical world through Science Enlightenment thinkers believed.that humans can improvethemselves Individual Morality Enhance Economic Growth Improve Government. Better agriculture Religious Tolerance Applying innovative rationalmethods to traditional socialand economic practices. Isaac Newton Quote If I have seen further it is bystanding on the shoulders of Source Isaac Newton Letter to Robert Hooke February 5 1675 English mathematician physicist 1642 1727 . Philosophes Theintellects writers and critics whochampioned economic political andscientific Focused on . Greater Freedoms More Liberties Improvements on society Influences on the Enlightenment Isaac Newton s determining the role of gravitation in.the relationship between objects enabled others torealize that much remained to be discovered Newton s use of empirical support for general lawsbecame an important feature to the Enlightenment John Locke s view of psychology that all humans.begin life as a tabula rasa blank page Locke s view gave Enlightenment thinkers grounds forarguing that the human condition could be improvedby modifying the social and political environment Influences Continued. Britain s domestic stability religious toleration freedom of press to an extent small army unregulated domestic life and political sovereignty inthe Parliament Britain stability suggested that Absolute Monarchy.may not be the best path France Louis XIV heavy taxation absolute monarchy religious persecution and large standing army seen asobstacles to reform Influences Continued. Voltaire criticized French life Letterson the English believed the French couldimprove their lives by modeling after British Candide attacked War and religious persecution Print Culture . spread ideas Public became more literate Printed materials had ability to shift public opinion The Encyclopedia Denis Diderot and Jean le Rond d Alembert. Product of writing by over 100 authors Two Aims Secularize Learning Replace intellectual assumptions of the Middle Agesand Reformation. Survived censorship Advanced ideas of the day and plea for freedom ofexpression Enlightenment and Religion Voltaire s slogan Crush the Infamous Thing sums up.general attitude Philosophes felt that Christianity focused attention onthe world to come was the detriment of the present Philosophes object to the power structure of the oldregiment which gave special rights to clergy France . Enlightenment and Religion Jewish and Islamic Religions alsocriticized by Enlightenment thinkers Baruch Spinoza and Moses Mendelsohn Jewish men who would enter the debate.criticism of Jewish religion Enlightenment thinkers portrayed Islamas a false religionChristianity is a REVEALED Natural ReligionRELIGION Empiricism Logic and.Teaching divine Revelation Observation Man is Fallen Man is IgnorantNeeds Redemption Needs EnlightenmentFaith ReasonAuthority Evidence.Empiricism You Trust what you cansee and deduce LOGICALLYDeism GODism Believe in Godbut no other aspects of faith Believe that religion and reason could be combined. Belief that God must be rational and religion should be so as well Deists believed that God existed and could be empiricallyjustified in the study of nature The Enlightenment and Society Philosophes were concerned with the application of.laws and reason to the social condition Cesare Beccaria 1738 1794 On Crimes andPunishments Attacked torture and capital punishmentused critical analysis to address the problem of.making punishments just and effective Enlightenment and Society Physiocrats Philosophes believed thatpolicy could be reformed in a way thatwas consistent with natural laws. Leadersincluded Francois Quesnay andPierre Dupont De Nemours Believedthat Mercantilist policieshampered with the expansion of trade. Enlightenment and Society Adam Smith A Wealth of Nations Believed that Economic Liberty was the foundation fora natural economic system and urged Mercantilistsystem to be abolished. Laissez Faire Hand off no government regulation inthe economy Four Stage Theory of human and economicdevelopment Enabled Europeans to see themselves dwelling at.the highest level of achievement Justification for economic and imperial dominationof the world Political Thought and Philosophes Baron de Montesquieu Spirit of Laws 1748 . Held British Constitution as an example of thewisest model for regulating power of government Advocated the French Aristocracy to improve theFrench political regiment Jean Jacques Rousseau Social Contract 1762 . Envisioned a Society in which each individual couldmaintain personal freedom while participating as aloyal member in a larger community Saw Humans beings as enmeshed in socialrelationships and believed that loyalty to a.community should be encouraged Women in the Though andPractice of the Enlightenment Helpedpromote careers of philosophes by givingthem access to their social and political contacts.and providing a forum for circulating ideasXV s mistress Madame De Tencin promoted Montesquieu s Spirit of Laws bypurchasing and circulating among friends MaryWollstonecraft addressed shortcomings.and critiqued Rousseau in A Vindication of theRights of Woman 1792 Recap on the Values of theEnlightenment The Values of the Enlightenment AP European History mp4. 18 Century AgeEnlightenmentCH 17 PART IIENLIGHTENED ABSOLUTISM FREDERICK THE GREAT OF PRUSSIA. CATHERINE THE GREAT OF RUSSIA JOSEPH II OF AUSTRIA Enlightened Absolutist Absolutists in the 18thcentury attempted to.apply the principles ofthe Enlightenment intheir kingdoms Many philosophessupported strong.monarchy as the besttool to implement thegoals and ideals of theEnlightenment Let us admit the truth the arts and.philosophy extend to only the few thevast mass the common people and thebulk of the nobility remain what naturehas made them that is to say savagebeasts . Frederick the Great to Voltaire Toleration of religious minorities Toleration of religious minoritiesReform of institutions Toleration of religious minorities.Reformof institutionsAbsolutism Duh Toleration of religious minoritiesReformof institutionsAbsolutism Duh .Patronage of the philosophes The Enlightened AbsolutistsCatherine II Frederick II Joseph II Russia Prussia Austria Frederick the. Frederick II The Great Saw himself as the First SERVANTof the state Anti Machiavel 1740 Frederick argued against.Machiavelli that a ruler shouldbe chiefly concerned with thewell being of his subjects Patronage Frederick corresponded with.Voltaire who was a regularguest at his court before theirrelationship soured Religious Toleration Frederick expanded.religious toleration inPrussia but still favoredProtestants for keygovernment posts Frederick was a skeptic. Civil Service Reform Frederick reformedthe Prussianbureaucracy allowed for men of.non noble birth tofill seniorgovernment posts Meritocracy Militarism. Frederickcontinued tosupport a highlymilitarized state contrary to theprinciples of the.Enlightenment Critical Thinking In what ways did Frederick theGreat successfully advanceEnlightenment principles in.Prussia What factors limited his Catherine the Great Assassination Catherin shusband Peter.III died lessthan a year aftertaking thethrone likely byassassination. Patronage CatherineDiderot s library Then paid him asalary to be her. librarian Catherinecorresponded withVoltaire whoappreciated her Pugachev s Rebellion 1773 1775. Showed lack ofCatherine s reform Uprisingofpeasants Cossacks on the.Russian frontier Catherine was Weak on Reform Catherine was too dependent on thesupport of the nobility to makeserious modernizing reforms e g .serfdom or legal changes Light on the reform Heavy on Patronage Self Quiz Catherine the Great rolled out an.ambitious program of Enlightenment inspired reforms in Russia TRUE False Self Quiz Catherine the Great rolled out an.ambitious program of Enlightenment inspired reforms in Russia TRUE False Joseph II Co Ruler with Maria Theresa. 1765 1780 Generous Religious Toleration Joseph s policyworship for Multi Ethnic State.Attempted toCentralizedAdministration Lots of push back Reformer. Josephabolished serfdom andgranted more rightsto peasants althoughlandlords retained.some control Joseph II knew he was un Here lies Joseph II whofailed in all heundertook . Recap of the EnlightenedAbsolutist Enlightened Absolutism Frederick the Great Catherine the Great Joseph II mp4. Self quiz Can you remember thefour characteristics ofenlightened absolutism Toleration of religious minorities.Reformof institutionsAbsolutism Duh Patronage of the philosophesPersuaded natural philosophers and many other writers that the traditions of thought inherited from both the ancient and medieval Christian worlds were . incorrect, or . confused, and needed to be challenged. Newtonian Physics brought a mechanical and mathematical rationality to the physical world.