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5 2 Terrestrial FoodProduction Systems andFood Choices TASK 2 TYPES OF FARMING SYSTEM Types of farming SUBSISTENCE the provision of food by farmers for their own families or the local.community no surplus Vulnerable to food shortages as little is stored Low input CASH CROPPING growing crops for the market not to eat yourself COMMERCIAL extensive intensive large profit making scale maximizedyields Monoculture High levels of technology E and chemical input high Extensive uses more land with a lower density of stocking or planting and lower input. Intensive uses land more intensively with high levels of input and output per unit area animal feedlots TYPES OF FARMING SYSTEM Types of farming PASTORAL raising animals usually on grass and on land that is not suitable forARABLE growing crops on good soils to eat directly or to feed to animals.MIXED both crops and animals and is a system in itself where animal waste isused to fertilize the crops and improve soil structure and some crops are fed to the SUSTAINABILITYSubsistence farming is more sustainable Factors Commercial agriculture mostly in Subsistence agriculture mostly in.MEDCs LEDCsScale of farming Large scale rely heavily on machinery Small scale labour intensive chemicalschemicals and extensive use of fossil fuels to boost productionIndustrialization MEDCs many working in industry LEDCs limited industry limited jobprovided with food from large scale opportunities people grow their own.commercial farming foodMechanization Lots of heavy machinery damage the soil Draft animals donkeys oxen or humanlots of fossil fuels power No burning of fossil fuels Use ofmanure feces H2O use Heavy water demands and large scale Required water but used unsustainably.irrigationFossil fuel use A heavy dependence on fossil fuels finite Use of manual labour or draft animalsresource which produces large amount of does not produce as much pollution aspollution commercial farming does MALNUTRITION. LACKING undernourishment lack of calories EXCESSIVE overnourishment too many calories leading to obesity UNBALANCED the wrong proportion of micro nutrients enough E but lacksessential nutrients proteins vitamins minerals Statistics . Undernourishment 925 million people 2 in MEDCs 98 in Asia Africa Oceania 200 million are infants and children Unbalanced diet 10 of the undernourished million die each year starvation malnutrition of 10 are 5 yrs old FOOD CHOICES.EXPLAIN the 4 factors which affect a society s food choices Climate determines what will grow where on Earth can adapt throughirrigation greenhouses Culture and religion some religions proscribe certain foods Hindus do not eat Politics governments manipulate production by putting tariffs or subsidizing. Socio economic market forces determine supply and demand in a free market economy FOOD CHOICE REFLECTIONConsider the food you eat on an average day EXPLAIN which of the 4 factorsaffect your diet . Climate it is hot in Vietnam so there is a limitation in food choices Somecrops food do not grow here Culture Kimchi in Korea Age I don t prefer things that are bitter Find out how many calories an average person needs per day .2700 for men and 2200 for women Find out how much food is produced around the world in calories per day There is an average of 2 790 calories of food available each day for every State whether there is enough food being produced to feed everyone in theThere is enough food to feed everyone in the world but is not distributed evenly.so people in LEDCs are often undernourished TIP for previous slide There is enough food to feed everyone If you find that there was not do somefurther research POLITICS OF FOOD SUPPLY.Summarise the information on pages 250 252 on the politics of food Huge differences exist between the diets of people in MEDCs and those in In the history of the human population food supply has kept pace with populationgrowth Malthusian but recently same are doubting that technology efficiencyand innovation will allow us to feed 9 million of population 1 1 billion living in.poverty increasing and getting hungrier degrade more land demand more meat As the population increases there is a fall in grain produced per capita EXPLAIN your opinion regarding world food supply How can we feedeveryone Should we try to .Example response I think the calories intake in MEDCs per capita should be controlled Peopleshould be educated to use land sustainably LEDCs should either decrease theirfood price or provide a certain amount of free food for undernourished people HISTORY OF AGRICULTURE.Define the following terms Domesticated animal came before crop farming dogs sheep goats pigs cattle Livestock converting plant material unsuitable for human digestion systems intovalued protein are kept and raised by human Arable farming cultivating crops on viable land vegetables cereals and plants.that produce cloth or oil Harvesting gathering a ripe crop from the fieldsa Requires the removal of thebiomass from the field the soil and the ecosystem Crop rotation a way of addressing loss of soil fertility Rotation with other crops HISTORY OF AGRICULTURE.Explain why humans started domesticating animals before they grew crops Before farming people lived by hunting wild animals When supplies ran out people moved on to other places Farming made them to inhabit in one placeinstead of travelling to find food They began to live in settled communities andgrew crops or raised animals . Dogs were used as hunting companions Sheep goats and pigs were hunted aswild prey and domesticated to provide more reliable source Some were used asfood Some provided wool and hides for clothing and even their bones antlers and teeth were used as tools and decorations CASE STUDY Palm Oil.What is palm oil how is it produced A type of edible vegetable oil that is derived from thepal fruit grown on the African oil palm treeIn what products is palm oil used Cooking oil margarine cosmetics biofuelState which products you use have palm oil in them Cooking oil and cosmetic goodsWhere is it produced and why is this so controversial West Africa and Central America Malaysia and.Indonesia The forests there have been cleared forWhy is palm oil such a popular crop Growing a few oil palms can bring an income for asubsistence farmer and large oil plantations andprocessing plants provide much needed employmentDescribe the effects of the high demand for palm oil on Loss of biodiversity in rainforest.Indonesian and Malaysian biodiversity CASE STUDY 2Choose 2 from the above table and make notes on their similarities anddifferences using the named example as the focus CASE STUDY 2 Cereal Growing Rice Growing.Similarities DifferencesCereal Growing Rice Growing Where Canadian Prairies Where Ganges Valley Extensive Commercial Intensive Subsistence Input High technology and fertilizer Input High labour low technology. Output low per hectare high per farmer Output high per hectare low per farmer Medium efficiency High efficiency Impacts High loss of natural ecosystem Impacts High padi rice has asoil erosion loss of biodiversity polyculture stocked with fish Also growother crops. FARMING ENERGY BUDGETExplain the difference between 1 Energy contained within the crop per unit area the relative E returns fromcereal and root crops from wheat and corn from beef or lamb However thiscalculation is problematic because it does not necessarily take into.consideration just the edible portion of the food 2 Energy efficiency of a farming system a system with inputs outputs andstorage that operate on a range of spatial area and temporal time scales Here you calculate the energy it took to produce that food and deliver it to themarket including factoring in the energy cost of waste products associated.with the farming system ie inedible portions of crop etc Explain the data shown in this table with focuson the ratio of inputs outputs For all but cereal growing efficiency is lessthan one input output . Input Output CASE STUDY 3You are required to be able to compare and contrast two differing food productionsystems regarding their inputs and outputs Make notes here on either Intensive beef production in South America vs Extensive beef production by.the Masai TERRESTRIAL vs AQUATIC FOOD SYSTEMSCompare the energy efficiency of terrestrial and aquatic food production systemsregarding Terrestrial System Aquatic Food System.Trophic levels of food chosen 1 or 2 4 or higherE transfer between trophic levels Higher losses when it comes to E efficiency is lower because of theskeletal waste they have to support E losses at each trophic level Ethemselves on land conversions along the food chain ismore efficient.Amount of sunlight Making a rather efficient use of solar The initial intake of Solar E is lessabsorbed wasted E efficient because of the absorptionand reflection of sunlight by water E losses as heat are higher in water FACTORS LEADING TO DECREASE IN.AGRICULTURAL LANDState 4 factors which lead to a loss in agricultural land soil erosion salinization desertification. urbanization INCREASING SUSTAINABILITYOUTLINE the following methods to increase sustainability of food production 1 Maximising yield a Improve technology.b Alter what we grow and how we grow it GMO c A new Green Revolution Agroecology 1 Reducing food waste a LEDCs food waste is mostly in production and storage eg no refrigeration b MEDCs food waste is mostly in consumption eg buying more than needed .1 Monitoring and end control a By governmental and intergovernmental bodies to regulate imports andexports to reduce unsustainable agricultural practicesb By multinational and national food corporations to raise standards andpractices on their supplier farms.c By individuals in NGO pressure groups INCREASING SUSTAINABILITY4 Changing attitudes of food and diet a Eat different cropsb Eat less meat.c Improve education about foodd Increase consumption of insects big protein source that reproduces rapidlyand in large cities5 Reduce food processing packaging and transport a be more aware of production efficiency increase consumer awareness.b eg growing tomatoes in a heated greenhouse in UK temperate may use moretotal E than growing them in the tropics and flying them into the UK Each of these is a prediction by the FAO aboutthe year 2030 Put them in order of importance from highest to.lowest and explain your opinion b. eg: growing tomatoes in a heated greenhouse in UK (temperate) may use more total E than growing them in the tropics and flying them into the UK. Each of these is a prediction by the FAO about the year 2030. Put them in order of importance from highest to lowest, and explain your opinion.