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Daniel Webster College Nashua NH March 24 2012July 10 15 2010 Asilomar Conference Grounds Pacific Grove California USARAREFACTION EFFECTS INHYPERSONIC AERODYNAMICSVladimir V Riabov Ph D .

Professor of Computer Science MathRivier CollegeNashua New Hampshirevriabov rivier eduhttp www rivier edu faculty vr... .

Topics for Discussing Experimental and numerical simulation ofhypersonic rarefied gas flows in air nitrogen carbon dioxide argon and helium Study of aerodynamics of simple shape bodies.

plate wedge cone disk sphere side by sideplates and cylinders torus and rotating cylinder Analysis of the role of various similarityparameters in low density aerothermodynamics Evaluation of various rarefaction and kinetic.

effects on drag lift pitching moment and heatDWC March 24 2012 Vladimir V Riabov Hypersonic 2Rarefied Aerothermodynamics Techniques Tools Experiments in hypersonic vacuum chamber .

Direct Simulation Monte Carlo technique DS2G version 3 2 code of Dr Graeme A Bird Knudsen numbers Kn L from 0 01 to 10 Reynolds numbers Re0 L from 200 to 0 2 Solutions of the Navier Stokes 2 D equations .

Solutions of the Thin Viscous Shock Layer equations Similarity principles applied to hypersonic rarefied gasDWC March 24 2012 Vladimir V Riabov Hypersonic 3Rarefied Aerothermodynamics Earth and Mars Atmospheric Parameters.

Pressures and temperatures in Mars and Earth atmospheres From D Paterna et al 2002 Experimental and Numerical Investigation of Martian Atmosphere Entry Journal of Spacecraft and Rockets Vol 39 No 2 March April 2002 pp 227 236DWC March 24 2012 Vladimir V Riabov Hypersonic 4Rarefied Aerothermodynamics.

Entry velocity envelopes for Earth Mars missionsEarth Entry Mars EntryEntry velocity envelopes for Earth Mars missions with return to Earth From Capsule Aerothermodynamics AGARD Report No 808 May 1997DWC March 24 2012 Vladimir V Riabov Hypersonic 5.

Rarefied Aerothermodynamics Typical trajectories of hypersonic spacecraftFrom J J Bertin and R M Cummings Critical Hypersonic AerothermodynamicPhenomena Annual Review of Fluid Mechanics 2006 Vol 38 pp 129 157DWC March 24 2012 Vladimir V Riabov Hypersonic 6.

Rarefied Aerothermodynamics European Space Agency ProjectsDWC March 24 2012 Vladimir V Riabov Hypersonic 7Rarefied Aerothermodynamics Flow regimes and thermochemical phenomena.

Flow regimes and thermochemical phenomena in the stagnationregion of a 30 5 cm radius sphere flying in air From R N Gupta et al NASA RP 1232 1990 DWC March 24 2012 Vladimir V Riabov Hypersonic 8Rarefied Aerothermodynamics.

Estimating Transport CoefficientsFrom Journal of Chemical Physics 2004 Vol 198 p 424 Riabov s data from Journal of Thermophysics Heat Transfer 1998 Vol 10 N 2DWC March 24 2012 Vladimir V Riabov Hypersonic 9Rarefied Aerothermodynamics.

Similarity parameters Knudsen number Kn L L or equivalent Reynolds number Re0 L U L T0 1 Kn L Interaction parameter for pressure approximation Viscous interaction parameter V for skin friction approximation .

Temperature factor tw Tw T0 Specific heat ratio cp cv Viscosity parameter n Tn Upstream Mach number M Hypersonic similarity parameter K M sin .

Spin rate W D 2U DWC March 24 2012 Vladimir V Riabov Hypersonic 10Rarefied Aerothermodynamics Choosing a Mathematical ModelThe validity of the conventional mathematical models as a function of the local.

Knudsen number From J N Moss and G A Bird AIAA Paper No 1984 0223 DWC March 24 2012 Vladimir V Riabov Hypersonic 11Rarefied Aerothermodynamics Estimating the local Knudsen numberDensity distribution along the stagnation streamline of the reentering Shuttle Orbiter.

at 92 35 km altitude Kn R 0 028 From G Bird AIAA Paper No 1985 994 DWC March 24 2012 Vladimir V Riabov Hypersonic 12Rarefied Aerothermodynamics Modeling of Hypersonic Flight Regimes inWind Tunnels.

The catalogs Wind Tunnels in the Western and EasternHemispheres U S Congress 2008 profiles 65 hypersonic windtunnels used for aeronautical testing The countries represented inthe catalogs include those in America Brazil 1 and USA 12 Asia Australia 7 China 5 and Japan 4 Europe Belgium 2 France.

5 Germany 2 Italy 1 the Netherlands 1 and Russia 21 andthe Middle East and Central and South Asia India 3 and Israel 1 Aerial view of the Thermal Protection Nozzle and test chamber of the H2K T 117 hypersonic wind tunnel TsAGI Laboratory at NASA Ames California hypersonic wind tunnel Germany Moscow region RussiaDWC March 24 2012 Vladimir V Riabov Hypersonic 13.

Rarefied Aerothermodynamics DWC March 24 2012 Vladimir V Riabov Hypersonic 14Rarefied Aerothermodynamics Research on Hypersonics in TsAGI Moscow region Russia DWC March 24 2012 Vladimir V Riabov Hypersonic 15.

Rarefied Aerothermodynamics Studies of Buran Aerothermodynamics TsAGI Russia DWC March 24 2012 Vladimir V Riabov Hypersonic 16Rarefied Aerothermodynamics International Cooperation Space Projects.

British HOTOL and Mriya 225 Launcher tested in T 128 TsAGI Wind Tunnel Moscow region RussiaDWC March 24 2012 Vladimir V Riabov Hypersonic 17Rarefied Aerothermodynamics Ground based testing in GermanyDWC March 24 2012 Vladimir V Riabov Hypersonic 18.

Rarefied Aerothermodynamics Ground based testing in GermanyDWC March 24 2012 Vladimir V Riabov Hypersonic 19Rarefied Aerothermodynamics HERMES Project Germany .

France 1987 1992HERMES Columbus Project Germany Italy 1987 1992Testing ranges of some facilities after Walpot L Tech Rept Memo 815 Univ Delft NL 1997 Bold lines indicate the individual range of each facility Note that the times given are.

maximal run times and not necessarily testing times for constant conditions in all cases DWC March 24 2012 Vladimir V Riabov Hypersonic 20Rarefied Aerothermodynamics The International Space Station MissionThe ISS effort involves more than 100 000 people in space agencies and at 500.

contractor facilities in 37 U S states and in 16 countries http www boeing com defense sp... DWC March 24 2012 Vladimir V Riabov Hypersonic 21Rarefied Aerothermodynamics The International Space Station Mission.

World ISS Team USA Canada ESA Belgium Denmark France Germany Italy the Netherlands Norway Spain Sweden Switzerland the UnitedKingdom Japan Russia Italy and Brazilhttp science nationalgeographi... DWC March 24 2012 Vladimir V Riabov Hypersonic 22.

Rarefied Aerothermodynamics Space Shuttle Orbiterapproximate heat transfer modelA Representative flow models B Heat flux on fuselage lower centerlineFrom J J Bertin and R M Cummings Critical Hypersonic.

Aerothermodynamic Phenomena Annual Review of Fluid Mechanics 2006 Vol 38 pp 129 157DWC March 24 2012 Vladimir V Riabov Hypersonic 23Rarefied Aerothermodynamics Applications of Underexpanded Jets in.

Hypersonic Aerothermodynamic Research A method of underexpanded hypersonic viscous jets has beendeveloped to acquire experimental aerodynamic data for simple shapebodies plates wedges cones spheres and cylinders in thetransitional regime between free molecular and continuum regimes .

The kinetic viscous and rotational nonequilibrium quantum processesin the jets of He Ar N2 and CO2 under various experimental conditionshave been analyzed by asymptotic methods and numerical techniques Fundamental laws for the characteristics and similarity parameters are In the case of hypersonic stabilization the Reynolds number Re 0 or.

Knudsen number Kn and temperature factor are the main similarityparameters The acquired data could be used for research and prediction ofaerodynamic characteristics of hypersonic vehicles during their flightsunder atmospheric conditions of Earth Mars and other planets .

DWC March 24 2012 Vladimir V Riabov Hypersonic 24Rarefied Aerothermodynamics Underexpanded Hypersonic Viscous JetDWC March 24 2012 Vladimir V Riabov Hypersonic 25Rarefied Aerothermodynamics.

Inviscid Gas Jets Ashkenas and Sherman 1964 Muntz 1970 andGusev and Klimova 1968 analyzed the structure ofinviscid gas jets in detail The flow inside the jet bounded by shock waves.

becomes significantly overexpanded relative to theoutside pressure pa If the pressure pj pa the overexpansion value isdetermined by the location of the front shock wave Mach disk on the jet axis rd Muntz 1970 .

rd rj 1 34 ps pa 1 DWC March 24 2012 26Vladimir V Riabov HypersonicRarefied Aerothermodynamics The asymptotic solution Riabov 1995 of the.

Euler equations in a hypersonic jet region u u0 u1 z2 1 z r r 2 u0 1 1 7 v v1 z2 1 d d lnr 3 u1 1 2 1 8 1 u0 z2 4 v1 2 1 u0 1 2 1 9 1 1 u0 1 10 .

T 1 z 2 1 p 1 u0 z2 6 r r rj 11 DWC March 24 2012 Vladimir V Riabov Hypersonic 27Rarefied Aerothermodynamics Mach number M along the axis of axisymmetric inviscid.

jets of argon or helium nitrogen and carbonic acid M u0 0 5 1 r r 0 1 Mach number MDistance along the jet axis r r jDWC March 24 2012 Vladimir V Riabov Hypersonic 28.

Rarefied Aerothermodynamics The asymptotic solution of the Navier Stokes equations ina hypersonic viscous gas jet region from V V Riabov Journal of Aircraft 1995 Vol 32 No 3 W u u0 2 1 13 W u0 1 u0 n r02X 18 .

V v 14 1 1 n r02X 19 11 n r0X 1 1 1 n T 15 r02 V X V X u0X 1 r02 20 nu0 n 1 2X2 1 0X r 0 r 16 .

r0 r r 0 21 4 3Rej r 0 0 17 r O Rej 1 2 1 2 1 n DWC March 24 2012 Vladimir V Riabov Hypersonic 29Rarefied Aerothermodynamics Mach number M along the axis of axisymmetric viscous.

jets of argon helium nitrogen and carbonic acid Ar Rej 750He Rej 250Mach number MN2 Rej 750.

10 CO2 Rej 750Distance along the jet axis r r jDWC March 24 2012 Vladimir V Riabov Hypersonic 30Rarefied Aerothermodynamics Translational Relaxation in a Spherical Expanding Gas Flow.

Parallel TTX and transverse TTY temperature distributions in thespherical expansion of argon into vacuum at Knudsen numbers Kn 0 015 and 0 0015 From V V Riabov RGD 23 Proceedings 2002 Temperature ratios T TTTX Kn 0 015.

0 01 TTY Kn 0 015TTX Kn 0 0015TTY Kn 0 0015Distance along the radius r r DWC March 24 2012 Vladimir V Riabov Hypersonic 31.

Rarefied Aerothermodynamics Rotational Relaxation in a Freely Expanding GasRelaxation time R of molecular nitrogen vs kinetic temperature Tt solid line Parker s model 1959 open symbols quantum rotational levels j 4 5 and 6 Lebed Riabov 1979 Experimental data from Brau Lordi 1970 .

Parameter p tau kg m s 1 E 05 classicalquantum j 4quantum j 5quantum j 6.

experiment10 100 1000Tem perature T KDWC March 24 2012 Vladimir V Riabov Hypersonic 32Rarefied Aerothermodynamics.

Rotational temperature TR along the nitrogen jet axisExperimental data from Marrone 1967 and Rebrov 1976 K u r p R 2730 psrj 240 torr mm and Ts 290 K nitrogen Rotational temperature T 100exper Rebrov .

quantum j 6quantum j 5quantum j 4exper M arrone Parker s model.

Distance along the jet axis r r jDWC March 24 2012 Vladimir V Riabov Hypersonic 33Rarefied Aerothermodynamics Rotational Relaxation in Viscous Gas FlowsRotational TR and translational Tt temperatures in spherical flows at.

different pressure ratios P p pa under the conditions Re 161 83 K 28 4 Pr n 0 75 Tsa 1 2T TR P 17 6TR T0 and Tt T0Tt P 17 6.

0 8 TR P 78 9Tt P 78 9TR P 175 70 4 Tt P 175 7TR inviscid.

0 2 Tt inviscid0 5 10 15 20 25Distance along the radius r r DWC March 24 2012 Vladimir V Riabov Hypersonic 34Rarefied Aerothermodynamics.

Similarity Criteria for AerodynamicExperiments in Underexpanded JetsThe interaction parameter for pressure approximation M 2 0 5 1 Re0 0 5The viscous interaction parameter V for skin friction approximation .

V 1 0 5 1 Re0 0 5The value of the Reynolds number Re0 can be easily changed byrelocation of a model along the jet axis at different distances x from aInfluence of the Helium and Nitrogen Mass Blowing Factor Gw DWC, March 24, 2012 Vladimir V. Riabov: Hypersonic Rarefied Aerothermodynamics * Hypersonic Hydrogen Combustion in Thin Viscous Shock Layer (TVSL) Combustion of air-hydrogen mixture (11 components, 35 chemical reactions); Two-dimensional flow in thin viscous shock layer (TVSL) near ...

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