Applying Evidence Based Practices in a Real World Setting:

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What Works to Reduce Recidivism in How Did We Get Here Levels of Research Lowest level of evidence Anecdotal evidence Gut feeling .
Highest level of evidence Empirical evidence data based Need to examine a body of literature Literature reviews Ballot counting.
Meta analysis Quantitative review of the research A standardized way of examining research Research Tells Us Not a single study has found.
Supervision alone will notreductions in recidivism usingchange behaviorpunish oriented programsPunishment programs have Must incorporate programming.
actually made individuals worse targeted at specific needsPunishment does not work for Most effective interventions are those who 1 Behavioral1 History of being punished 2 Focus on current risk factors2 Under the influence 3 Action oriented.
3 Psychopathic risk takers 4 Behavior is reinforced What Do We Know Majority of studies have shown thatcorrectional treatment interventions havereduced recidivism rates relative to various.
comparison Average reduction in recidivism isapproximately 10 percent Now looking at characteristics of stellarprograms versus mediocre programs.
What the Research Tells Us1 Validated assessment of risk need is imperative to determine thebest interventions Risk Need Principles 2 Supervision strategies should correspond with the risk of recidivism Risk Principle .
Programming and treatment designed to target criminogenic needsare necessary components of interventions They should be theory driven and based on current research Need Treatment Principles 4 Individualize intervention strategies to increase the responsivenessof each youth Responsivity Principle .
What the Research Tells Us Validated assessment of risk need is1 imperative to determine the bestinterventions Risk of recidivism.
Risk principle use standardized andRisk principle tells us WHOvalidated measures of risk need todetermine which youth should receiveClassification Assessment.
Important Reduces bias Aids in legal challenges Helps better utilize resources Guides decision making.
Improves placement of youth Helps track changes of the youth Can lead to enhanced public safety Common Problems withAssessment.
Assessment instruments not validated ornormed to the local youthful population Youth are assessed then everyone gets thesame level of programming Put in the file and never used again.
Errors occur even with the most efficientinstrument Choice of instrument does not reflectimportant organizational considerations Major Risk Factors.
Antisocial attitudes Antisocial peers Antisocial personality History of antisocial behavior Family criminality and psychological problems in family origin.
Low levels of education employment achievement Lack of participation in prosocial leisure activities Substance abuse Antisocial Attitudes Criminal attitudes have central role in major.
theories of criminality Until recently criminal attitudes have beenvirtually ignored in the mainstreamassessment treatment Antisocial Attitudes.
Attitudes values beliefs rationalizations cognitions negative cognitive emotional states that support criminal Defiance Criminal identity What we think and believe affects what we do.
Identifying Antisocial Attitudes What to Listen For Procriminal attitudes are what people think the content of the message andnot how people think Negative expression about the law.
Negative expression about conventional institutions values rules procedures including authority Negative expressions about self management of behavior including problemsolving ability Negative attitudes toward self and one s ability to achieve through.
conventional means Lack of empathy and sensitivity toward others Neutralizations andMinimizations Sets of verbalizations that serve to make it ok for behavior.
Denial of Responsibility Criminal acts are due to factorsbeyond the control of the individual thus the individual isguilt free to act Denial of Injury Admits responsibility for the act butminimizes the extent of harm or denies any harm.
Denial of the Victim Reverses the roles blames the System Bashing Those who disapprove of the youth sacts are defined as immoral hypocritical or criminalthemselves Appeal to Higher Loyalties Live by a different code the.
demands of larger society are sacrificed for the demandsof more immediate loyalties How to Address AntisocialAttitudes Use programming and techniques that .
Identify antisocial thinking Use thought blockers Changing the antisocial thinking Influence of Peers Elevated risk.
Delinquent associations Absence of prosocial associations Based on social learning Learn through interaction of others Provide reinforcements.
Reducing Peer Associations Restrict associates Set and enforce curfews Ban hangouts Teach youth to recognize avoid negative influences.
people places things Practice new skills like being assertive instead of passive Teach how to maintain relationships w o getting into trouble Identify or develop positive associations mentors family friends teachers employer etc .
Train family and friends to assist youth Set goal of one new friend positive association per month Develop sober prosocial leisure activities Antisocial Personality Patterns Psychopathy.
Weak socialization Impulsivity Restless aggressive energy Egocentricism Below average verbal intelligence.
A taste for risk Weak problem solving Poor self regulation skills Hostile interpersonal interactions lack of empathy How Do We Address Antisocial.
Personality Skill based programs Anger management Impulse control Decision making.
Problem solving Thinking skills History of Antisocial Behavior The best predictor of future behavior is past behavior Age of onset escalation of offending.
Variety of acts Across settings 40 of serious offenders commit their first criminaloffense by age 12 85 of serious offenders have committed an offense by.
Family Factors Include parental criminality and a variety ofpsychological problems in the family of origin Low levels of affection caring and cohesiveness Poor parental practices.
Recognition of antisocial behaviors Parental supervision Discipline none or too much Neglect and abuse Addressing Family Factors.
Family counseling to repair relationships Teach to recognize antisocial behavior Enhance supervision practices Enhance disciplinary practices Education and Employment.
Employment or education occupies time witha prosocial activity Receiving rewards for participation inprosocial activity Interacting with prosocial others.
Factors include Low levels of personal educational vocationalachievement Cumulative disadvantage Leisure Recreation.
Low involvement in prosocial leisure andrecreational activities Idle hands Substance Abuse Activity is illegal itself.
Use may lead to other criminal behaviors Theft robbery to get drugs Lower inhibitions beer muscles Buying drugs puts a person in contact with criminal Selling buying drugs usually creates an environment that.
is conducive to other criminal behaviors What the Research Tells Us1 Validated assessment of risk need is imperative to determine thebest interventions Risk Need Principles 2 Supervision strategies should correspond with the risk of recidivism .
Risk Principle Programming and treatment designed to target criminogenic needsare necessary components of interventions They should be theory driven and based on current research Need Treatment Principles 4 Individualize intervention strategies to increase the responsiveness.
of each youth Responsivity Principle Example of the Risk Principle in Action R e c id iv is m R a te s30 28 27 26Low Moderate High Very High.
Community CCF Institution Risk Principle in ActionMatch risk level with supervision programmingJuveniles with ahigher risk for.
recidivism shouldProgramming receive moreHigher Risk intensive services forSupervision a longer period ofJuveniles with a.
lower risk forrecidivism havefewer problems anddo not requireintensive services.
Risk Principle In ActionLower Risk YouthHigher Risk YouthKeep lower risk and higher risk youths separate in residential settingsand in groups.
Violating the Risk PrincipleYouth at lower risk ofrecidivism being oversupervised and over treatedBest option no reduction in.
Low risk youth recidivismSupervision Programming Worst case causing harm toOver treating and supervisingdisrupts the factors that make.
the youth at low risk ofrecidivism Violating the Risk PrincipleYouth with a higher risk forrecidivism being under.
supervised and under treatedViolating the risk principle forLow supervision higher risk youth results inno programming increasing in recidivism.
High risk youthNot enough supervision control to reduce behaviorNot enough intensity ofprogramming to disrupt risk.
What the Research Tells Us1 Validated assessment of risk need is imperative to determine thebest interventions Risk Need Principles 2 Supervision strategies should correspond with the risk of recidivism Risk Principle .
Programming and treatment designed to target criminogenic needsare necessary components of interventions They should be theory driven and based on current research Need Treatment Principles 4 Individualize intervention strategies to increase the responsivenessof each youth Responsivity Principle .
Need Principle Identify the criminogenic needs dynamic factors related tothe probability of recidivism Antisocial attitudes Influence of antisocial friends lack of prosocial friends supports.
Antisocial personality conducive to criminal behavior Substance abuse Family factors Lack of educational vocational attainment Provide programming to reduce these needs.
The Human Service Treatment Principle Supervision alone will not change behavior Punishment programs are not effective inchanging the behavior.
Must provide programming to meet thedynamic risk factors criminogenic needs thatincrease the probability of delinquency Not all programming will benefit juveniles Specific curriculum training and or training in.
Most Successful Types ofTreatment Approaches Family based therapies Multi systemic Functional Family Therapy Social learning modeling prosocial behavior .
skills development Cognitive behavioral cognitive theory problem Radical behavioral token economies contingency management Targeting specific criminogenic needs problem.
sexual behavior violence substance abuse education serious mental illness Treatment PrincipleCognitive SkillsCognitive Restructuring.
Effective ProgramsConsequences Rewards How Cognitive Behavioral Interventions Work to ChangeSituation Consequence.
Typical thinking patterns of offenders How Cognitive Behavioral Interventions Work to Changeto identify Behavior ChangeConsequences.
Situation Thoughts Feelings Cognitive Skills Tools in the Tool BoxPractice by YouthModel by Staff Feedback .
Reinforcement Structured Skill Building Staff defines and sells the skill to be learned Staff models the skill Demonstrates for offender.
Offender practices Engages in roleplay Offender receives reinforcement and feedback Offender generalizes skill Practices the skill in real life situations.
Effective ReinforcementThe Hows and Whys Contingent on performing Identify the behavior to bethe desired behavior.
reinforced Consistently and then During or immediatelyfollowing the behavior tell intermittentlythe person what behavior Reinforcer desirable to.
you liked and why recipient Discuss short and longterm benefits of behavior Effective DisapprovalHow to Administer Punishers.
Identify the behavior to be punished Immediately tell the person what behavior you disliked Tell the person why you disliked the behavior Discuss the short and long term consequences of the.
Criminal attitudes have central role in major theories of criminality. Until recently, criminal attitudes have been virtually ignored in the mainstream assessment & treatment. Talk about the major theories. Sykes and Matza’s techniques of neutralizations. – Denial of responsibility, denial of injury, victim, appeal to higher loyalities

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