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GEOG2 SECTION ASelf quizzing I have included questions in this presentation followed by mark scheme from AQA Some answers are on the following slide .Some slides include animation appear to showanswers to questions CHECK YOUR PENCIL CASE MAP SKILLS1 maps with located proportional symbols .squares circles semi circles bars see graphical2 maps showing movement flow lines desirelines and trip lines3 choropleth isoline and dot maps Maps showing movement flow lines desire lines and trip lines.There are all used on maps to show movementas either arrows or lines They can also be usedto show the density of the movement 1 Flow line map shows the actual flow anddirection of something for example traffic The.flow line is drawn proportional to the numbertravelling along the route by the use of a suitableSee next slide for example of flow line map Measuring traffic flows in Manchester Desire lines. Show how busy a route is between two places The line ignores the actual route taken andsimply concentrates on the origin thedestination and the number on the route Shows movement between region or even.different parts of the world Desire lines Trip lines Variation on the desire line concept Used to display information related to trips or.journeys taken by individual people On a map trip lines look like spokes on a wheel For example a series of trip lines could be drawn ourfrom a central point such as a supermarket to eachcustomer s home to see the sphere of influence of.the supermarket the maximum distance people areprepared to travel to use that service Flow line Dot maps Useful to identify the density of a particular.variable such as population Indicate the distribution of a particular It is possible to estimate the numbers in aparticular place provided each dot is clearly limitations see next question. JUN13 1 a Study Figure 1 a dot map showing the distribution of population in 1 a i Using Figure 1 describe the distribution of population in Brazil 3 marks 1 Even Uneven 2 Highest density 3 Sparsely populated .4 Clusters 1 a ii Outline one strength and two weaknesses associated with the dot map fordisplaying this data 3 marks Choropleth mapsThese are maps where areas are shaded.according to a prearranged key each shading orcolour type representing a range of values See strengths and limitations next slide Strengths Choropleths give a good visual impression of change over space . Simple technique to use and extremely effective at helping toobserve patterns that would otherwise remain hidden innumerical data Spatial anomalies can easily be identified Limitations . They give a false impression of abrupt change at the boundariesof shaded units The reality is probably that change is more Variations within map units are hidden You do not know the actual data at any point of the choropleth JUN12 1 c Study Figure 3 which shows rainfall data gathered over a period of 72 hours in.November 2009 for part of Britain Comment on the usefulness of this technique as a method of displaying this data 5Comment on On data stimulus response questions it means to examine thestimulus material provided and then make statements about the material and itscontent that are relevant appropriate and geographical but not directly evident .For a mapping technique your answer must include the strengths and limitations ofthis technique 17 Isolines Represent the same value along their ownlength e g contour lines on OS maps. River depth data JUN11 1 b i Study Figure 2 a sketch plan of a meander showing river channel depth Add the following information an isoline to represent the river depth of 5 cm a label which clearly locates the deep pool A curved 5cm isoline must touch the 5s.indicated on the sketch and extend to themargins It must also be on the correctside of the 3s and 6s respectively Asecond mark is available for accuracythroughout isoline .For deep pool allow anywhere inside the25cm isoline 1 b ii Study Figure 3 a sketch cross section showing velocity along line X Y in FigureIdentify with a labelledarrow the fastest part of the.river and describe therelationshipbetween the informationshown in Figure 2 andReserve 1 mark for the fastest part of the river allow anywhere over 0 4m sec .For description allow one mark per valid point with additional credit fordevelopment For example The fastest part of the river also correlates with the deepest Here speeds of0 45m sec appear to be the deepest sections at up to 32cm depth d This alsoappears to be the outside of the bend of the meander d As the water becomes.shallow velocity decreases Additional credit for development No credit forstraight reversals Use of data must link Figures 2 and 3 Graphical Skills1 line graphs simple comparative compound and2 bar graphs simple comparative compound and.3 scatter graphs and use of best fit line4 pie charts and proportional divided circles5 triangular graphs6 radial diagrams7 logarithmic scales.8 dispersion diagrams 1 Line graphs Simple but effective way of showingcontinuous data Useful because they can suggest trends over.time and can be used to estimate futurepatterns based on present trends Study Figure 1 which shows changes in the populations ofIndia and China between 2000 and 2050 projected Questions linked to this line graph.1 a ii Describe the changes shown in Figure 1 4 marks Answer the questions and check your answers Compound line graphOn a compound line graph different sets of datacan be displayed to allow comparison to be. Cheese cake graph The DTM is a very specialised comparative linegraph which looks at how changing birth anddeath rates impact upon the total population 2 bar graphs. Simplest form to represent numbers in a set of Can be used either to compare different setsof data or to compare categories within a set JUN 12 QUESTION 1 d JUN10 Study Figure 5 which shows estimated population change in India s largest.urban areas between 2008 and 2030 1 c ii Suggest factors responsible for the changingpopulations shown in Figure 5 5 marks 1 c ii Notes for answers 5 marks This response does not require specific knowledge of India in order to score full marks .Any reasonable factors offered can score credit Cities are growing for many different reasons for example birth rate is a major factor affecting the growth of cities in India rural to urban migration is still an important consideration with valid reference topush and pull factors. improved health care and diet is responsible for lowering the death rate thuscontributing to overall growth of cities some may comment on the larger increases in Kolkata Delhi and Mumbai makinglinks to their regional centre status attracting further migrants for employmentopportunities .Level 2 4 5 marks Clearly aware of the urban theme of question Shows knowledge and understanding ofthe factors affecting the growth of cities in such locations More than one factorsuggested for L2 For full marks must specifically refer to either birth rate orinward migration . 1 a ii Describe the pattern now shown in Figure 1 39 Compound bar graphs Divided barsIndividual bars broken down to show more thanone piece of information .All values are changed into percentage and addup to 100 JAN12 Study Figure 3 which shows three different types of benefit claimed by people indifferent areas of Merseyside in 2008 1 c ii Using Figure 3 calculate the mean.percentage of Disability Living Allowanceclaimants for the four areas now shown Explainwhy the mean is a useful measure for this set ofdata 3 marks Mean percentage .1 c iii Describe and comment on thepatterns now shown in Figure 3 5 marks 1 c iii Describe and comment on the patterns now shown in Figure 3 5 marks 1 c Study Figure 4 which shows birth rates and death rates for selected countries 1 c i Choose an appropriate technique and display the data shown in Figure.4 using the axes provided on the graph paper below 4 marks Next slide The most likely technique will be a comparative bar chart Alternative techniques canbe credited if the data is presented appropriately e g scatter graph Pie charts and linegraphs are not appropriate Accurate and complete data displayed 2 marks .Appropriate scale 1 mark Both axes labelled correctly 1 mark Use of key 1 mark Lose 1 mark per inaccuracy or omission Max 2 for inaccurate data presented No data presented No credit awarded.Inappropriate technique e g line graph no credit Don t forget toDon t forget to label axes 49 Divergent bar graphs Graph with data spread on either side of the x . For example population pyramids HOW TO INTERPRETE A POPULATION Question Jun09 1 a 3 scatter graphs and use of best fit line Investigate correlations. Dependent independent variable If one of your variables is expected to affect achange in the other the variable affecting thechange is referred as independent and this data isplotted on the x axis .The data thought to be affected by the change isreferred to as the dependent variable and isplotted on the y axis Line of best fit anomalyHow to draw a line of best fit.Draw a line that broadly represents your patternwith an equal number of points on either side Anomaly or residualA piece of data which is very different from theGenerally it is a good practice to ignore it when.drawing the line of best fit JUNE 12 1 b i Study Figure 2 which shows the relationship between catchment sizeand annual discharge for selected rivers in the north of England in 2009 1 b ii Describe the pattern now shownin Figure 2 4 marks . How it was marked 1 mark per valid plot Accept 75 km2 for River X catchmentsize 2 11 mark for appropriate best fit line 1 State the type of correlation and describe it 2 Look for clusters of data Give data.3 Identify anomaly ies and give data 4 Pie charts and proportional divided circles Various components of whole set of data brokendown and displayed as a series of segments Segments are proportional to each other within.the pie chart A proportional divided circle has its areaproportional to the overall values in the data set These are mainly created for the purpose ofcomparing data set . How to create a pie chart Each category within the data set has to be turnedinto a percentage of the set of data To do this dividethe segment value by the overall value and thenmultiply by 100 . Each category has to be turned into a number ofdegrees Since there are 360 degrees in a circle youneed to multiply your percentage by 3 6 to turn itinto a number of degrees Draw a line from the centre of the circle to the top .Add segments JUN10 Using the information provided in Figure 2 and Figure 3 complete the proportionaldivided circle Figure 4 to show India s projected population total and structure for 1 b ii Using the information provided in 1 b i describe thechanges to India s population total and structure 4 marks .Answer questions Check answers next slide 5 triangular graphs 3 variables that add up to 100 Useful in showing patterns of clusteringbetween different variables. However triangular graphs only work with avery limited range of data JAN12 Study Figure 2 which shows population age structures in ten Super Output Areasin Merseyside To plot data remember this simple way .A axis B axis Compare the pattern now shown in Figure 2 with the national average data andsuggest implications for the provision of services in these areas 8 marks 6 radial diagrams Polar graphs Polar graphs are a useful technique for.showing data related to change over time orchange in direction However it slightly distorts the higher valuesmaking it a little difficult to interpret JAN13 1 a Study Figure 1 which shows two different traffic flows over an 18 hour.period in Winsford Cheshire No data were collected from 00 00 to 05 00 All vehicles going into and out of the town centre were counted for a period of tenminutes at the start of each hour 2 1 for each accurate plot Use of key not essential but plots must be joinedup Maximum 1 if points are not joined One plot not joined 0 marks . 1 a ii With reference to Figure 1 compare the traffic flows into and out ofthe town centre 7 logarithmic scales Uses a series of cycles where increases occurin multiple of 10 . Particularly useful when there is a very large1 (b) (ii) Study Figure 3, a sketch cross-section showing velocity along line Xâ€”Y in Figure 2. Identify with a labelled arrow the fastest part of the river and describe the relationship. between the information shown in Figure 2 and Figure 3. Reserve 1 mark for the fastest part of the river - allow anywhere over 0.4m/sec.