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NationalismSectionalism Regional Economies CreateDifferencesThe North and South developed.different economic systems thatwould lead to political differencesbetween regions Even today different regions of thecountry continue to have differing.political and economic interests During the 19th century new approaches such as EliWhitney s interchangeable parts would revolutionindustry by taken work from the homes and fromartisans and placing them in factories .Factories would become the new centers of industry The factory system made mass production theproduction of goods in large quantities Changes in manufacturing brought about the IndustrialRevolution to America .Social and economic reorganization that took place asmachines replaced hand tools and large scale factoryproduction developed The Industrial Revolution actually began in GreatThe primary source of income in America after the War.of Independence was international trade notmanufacturing Farms and plantations produced agricultural productssuch as grain and tobacco which were shipped toGreat Britain southern Europe and the West Indies .Two events the passage of the Embargo 1807 and theWar of 1812 turned the attention of Americans towardthe development of domestic industries What effects did the Embargo Act of 1807 and the Warof 1812 have on Americans involved in shipping and.foreign trade Shipping and foreign trade came to a standstill causingpeople who worked in these interest seek other kinds ofwork and invest in other business Probably nowhere else in the nation was the push to.invest in in industry as great as in New England In 1793 a British immigrant named Samuel Slater hadestablished in Pawtucket Rhode Island the firstsuccessful mechanized textile factory in America In 1813 three Bostonians revolutionized the American.textile industry by mechanizing all the stages in themanufacture of cloth Using plans from an English mill Francis Cabot Lowell Nathan Appleton and Patrick Tracy Jackson built aweaving factory in Massachusetts and outfitted it with.power machinery Two Economic Systems DevelopNortheasterners prompted by changingeconomic conditions invested their capital infactories and manufacturing operations .Southerners on the other hand had begun toreap huge profits from cotton by the mid 1790s The South had very little incentive toindustrialize The North and South continued to develop two.distinct economies including very differentagricultural systems Agricultural in the NorthThe North had not eliminated agricultural The type and the growth of cities in the North.encouraged farmers to cultivate smaller farmsthan Southerners did and to grow crops that didnot require much labor By the 1700s slavery was dying out in the North Farmers had little economic motivation to use.slaves and an increasing number ofNortherners began to voice their religious andpolitical opposition to slavery By1804 almost all the Northern states had voluntarilyabolished slavery .So why was slavery abolished in the North Small farms developed in the North ending thedemand for slaves Large plantations developed in theSouth leading to the expansion of slavery with cottonas the staple crop .Eli Whitney s invention of cotton gin in 1793 hadhelped to set the South on a different course ofdevelopment from the North Since cotton was in such great demand in Britain andincreasingly in the North and efficient machine for.cleaning the seeds from the cotton The American SystemAs the North and South developed differenteconomies the creation of a plan to unify thenation became increasingly important .In 1815 President Madison presented such aplan to Congress He hoped to unite the different regions of thecountry and create a strong stable economythat would make the nation self sufficient . President Madison s plan included three major points 1 Developing transportation system and other internalimprovements 2 Establishing a protective tariff 3 Resurrecting the national bank . Speaker of the House Henry Clay began to promoteMadison s plan as the American System Clay explained the American System was a plan thatwould unite the nation s economic interests What was the intention of the American System . To united the nation s economic interests by having theNorth produce manufactured goods and farmers in theSouth and West would buy while South and Westwould raise the grain livestock and cotton the North Tariffs and the National Bank.Why were the tariffs on imports proposed by Madisonand promoted by Clay Ever since the War of 1812 British goods such as ironand textiles stockpiled during the war were soldbelow the cost of American made merchandise .Placing a tariff on imports would increase the cost offoreign goods and thereby eliminate the priceadvantage the British had The Tariff of 1816 was the first tariff intended more forprotecting American industry against foreign.competition than for generating revenue Roads and TurnpikesAs early as 1806 the nation took the first steptoward a transportation revolution whenCongress funded the building of a major East .West highway the National Road In 1811 laborers started cutting the roadbedwestward from the Potomac River atCumberland Maryland By 1818 the roadway had reached Wheeling .Virginia on the Ohio River Jefferson and his successors believed in a strictinterpretation of the Constitution and doubtedthat the federal government had the power tofund roads and other internal improvements .The National Road marked the start of a federalcampaign to improve transportation It turned out to be the only great federallyfunded transportation project of its time By 1821 some 4000 miles of toll roads had been.built mainly connecting eastern cities A Revolution in TransportationThe Erie Canal was a striking example of arevolution in transportation that swept throughthe Northern States in the early 1800s .This would led to dramatic social and economicProposed in 1808 and completed in 1825 thecanal links the waters of Lake Erie in the west tothe Hudson River in the east An engineeringmarvel when it was built some called it the.Eighth Wonder of the World Steamboats and CanalsWhat offered a far faster more efficient andcheaper way to move goods than roads A barge could hold many wagonloads of grain.Yet how could they move Only with the current downstream In 1807 Robert Fulton and Robert R Livingstonstunned the nation when the Clermont chugged150 miles up the Hudson River from New York.to Albany in 32 hours SteamboatThe steamboat made rivertravel more reliable andupstream travel easier .By 1850 over 700steamboats traveledalong the nation swaterways The growth of river travel .and the success of the ErieCanal spurred a wave ofcanal building throughoutthe country Nationalism.Nationalism exerted a strong influence in thecourts foreign affairs and westward expansionin the early 1800s Nationalism continues to affect such decisionsas whether or not we should involve the.country in foreign conflicts and what limits canbe place on business communication and other Supreme Court Boosts National PowerIn 1808 Robert Fulton and Robert Livingston receiveda charter from the New York legislature that gave them.the exclusive right to run steamboats on the rivers inthat state This charter granted them a monopoly exclusive legalcontrol of commercial activity by charging steamboatoperators for licenses to operate on a various stretches.Aaron Ogden was licensed by Fulton and Livingston hebelieved that he was the only operator legally entitledto run a steamboat service on the Hudson River Thomas Gibbons began to run a similar servicein the same area claiming he was entitled to do.according to federal law Ogden took Gibbons to court to stop him However in 1824 the Supreme Court ruled thatinterstate commerce could be regulated only bythe federal government . Gibbons v OgdenThis case involved a company that had a state grantedmonopoly over steamboat traffic in New York The company tried to expand its monopoly to includetraffic crossing the Hudson River to New Jersey the.matter went to court Supreme Court declared thismonopoly unconstitutional By clarifying that Congress had authority overinterstate commerce the Ogden vs Gibbons decisionhelped to ensure that the federal government has the.power to regulate just about everything that crossesstate lines Strengthening Government Economic ControlJohn Marshall was the Chief Justices of the SupremeCourt during a time when a majority of the nation s.leaders were Democrats and Democratic Republicans In the court case McCulloch v Maryland the SupremeCourt ruled that taxing the national bank was a form ofinterference and therefore unconstitutional McCulloch v Maryland.Upheld constitutionally of theBank of the United States doctrine of implied powers provided Congress moreflexibility to enact legislation .Case concerned Maryland sattempt to tax the SecondBank of the United States Taxing the national bank was aform of interference and.therefore unconstitutional Limiting PowersUnder John Marshall the Supreme Court madeseveral rulings that blocked state interference inbusiness and commerce even when this meant.overturning state law In Fletcher v Peck the Supreme Court nullified aGeorgia law that violated individuals Constitutionalright to enter into contracts In what ways did the Supreme Court boost federal.In a series of decisions the Supreme Courtstrengthened federal economic power and limitedstate powers Nationalism Shapes Foreign PolicyChief Justice John Marshall guided the Supreme Court to.decisions that increased the power of the federal governmentover the state government Secretary of State John Quincy Adams establish foreign policyguided by nationalism the belief that national interests shouldbe placed ahead of regional concerns or interests of other.countries Working under President James Monroe Adams prioritized thesecurity of the nation and expansion of its territory Adams worked out a treaty with Great Britain to reduce theGreat Lakes fleet of both countries to only a few military.In the Rush Bagot Treaty of 1817 the U S and Canada tocompletely demilitarized In 1819 too weak to police its New Worldterritories Spain ceded Florida to the U S in the Adams Onis Treaty and gave up its.claim to the Oregon Territory After Spain and Portugal defeatedNapoleon in 1815 these European powerswanted to reclaim their former colonies inLatin America .With Spain Portugal trying to move backinto their old colonial areas and withRussia pushing in from the Northwest theU S had to do something In 1823 President Monroe warned all outside powers.not to interfere with affairs in the Western Hemisphereor would the U S interfere in European affairs Thisprinciple became known as the Monroe Doctrine While Presidents Adams and Monroe establishedpolicies that expanded U S territory American settlers.pushed into the Northwest Territory While some settlers went west toescape debts or even the law mostpushed westward in search ofeconomic gain for land was not only.plentiful and fertile but cheap One could change occupations moreeasily on the frontier Jim Beckwourth the son of a whiteman and an African American woman.ventured westward with a fur tradingexpedition in 1823 Lived among theCrow who gave him the name BloodyArm because of his skill as a fighter Missouri Compromise.When a territory s population reached 60 000 thepeople of the territory could petition the Union forstatehood In 1819 tensions rose when Missouri applied forstatehood .What would be the problem with Missouriapplication for statehood in 1819 cause Whether slavery should expand westward In 1819 the Union had 11 free states and 11 slaveWhat did Missouri request to come in as free or. Acting for slavery s opponentsCongressman James TallmadgeJr of New York proposed aresolution that prohibitedslaveholders from bringing.slaves into Missouri The resolution also called forenslaved children living inMissouri to be freed when theyreached the age of 25 . Age of JacksonAndrew Jackson s policies spokefor the common people butviolated Native American rights Four candidates ran for president.during 1824 All were members of theRepublican Party and all werefavorite sons What is a favorite son .Men who enjoyed support ofleaders from their on state or Election of 1824Who were the candidates favorite.The high tariff on manufactured goods reduced British exports to the United States and forced the South to buy the more expensive Northern manufactured goods. From the Southâ€™s point of view, the North was getting rich at the expense of the South. Calhoun was in an unusual and politically dangerous position.