CCNA 1 Module 11 TCP/IP Transport and Application Layers

CCNA 1 Module 11 TCP IP Transport And Application Layers-ppt Download

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CCNA 2 v3 1 Module 9Basic Router Troubleshooting 2004 Cisco Systems Inc All rights reserved 1 Objectives One of the primary functions of a router is to determine the best.
path to a given destination A router learns paths also called routes from an administrator sconfiguration or from other routers by way of routing protocols This module will describe methods for examining and interpretingthe contents of the routing table.
Network testing and troubleshooting are perhaps the most timeconsuming components of every network administrator s job Efficient testing and troubleshooting must be done in a logical orderly and well documented fashion This module will introduce several of the most important of these.
tools and provide practice in their use The show ip route CommandThe show ip route command displays the contentsof the IP routing table Examining the Routing Table.
A routing table contains a list of the best available routes Routers use routing tables to make packet forwarding decisions Dublin show ip routeNetworks being advertisedOut interface.
Codes how the Administrative Metric Next Hop Time sinceroutes were learnt Distance last update Static Routing Dynamic Routing Default Route.
Default routes are used when there isn t a more specific entry inrouting table The router uses the default route to reach the gateway of last resort Configuring a Default Route Alternatively use the default network command.
Router config ip default network 172 16 1 2 Determining Route Source and Destination Routing Role of Layer 2 and Layer 3 AddressingHop Source MAC Destination MAC Source IP Destination IP1 00 ac 2d 34 56 11 00 01 46 26 23 a4 192 168 1 5 192 168 3 10.
2 00 01 46 26 23 a4 00 04 24 98 55 44 192 168 1 5 192 168 3 103 00 04 24 98 55 44 00 2a 3b 3c a4 33 192 168 1 5 192 168 3 10 Role of Packets and Frames in Path Traversal Determining L2 and L3 Addresses Determining Administrative Distance.
AD measures the trustworthiness of the source of the routeinformation The lower the AD the more trustworthy the source Different routing protocols have different default ADs When there are two paths available to a destination the path with.
the lowest AD is used in the routing table Determining the Route Metric Routing algorithms generate a number called the metric value for each path through the network The metric value is used to determine the best route to a.
destination The various protocols base their metrics on different factors Routing Metrics Hop Countnumber of hops.
Bandwidthspeed of the linkthe time taken to traverse the path Reliabilitythe error rate on a link from 1 bad to 255 good .
the amount of traffic on the link from 1 good to 255 bad Largest packet allowed on linkArbitrary meaning assigned by administrator lower is better Routing Metric CalculationsMetric K1 Bandwidth K2 Bandwidth 256 load .
K3 Delay K5 reliability K4 K1 K3 1 and K2 K4 K5 0 If K5 0 then K5 reliability K4 0 Metric Bandwidth Delay Viewing the Routing Table.
Use the following commands to find the lastrouting update show ip routeshow ip route networkshow ip route connected.
show ip route staticshow ip protocolsshow ip rip database Show ip route Command Observing Multiple Paths to a Destination.
Some routing protocols support multiplepaths to the same destination Unlike single path algorithms these multi path algorithms permit traffic over multiplelines provide better throughput and are more.
Introduction to Network Testing Structured Approach to Troubleshooting Typical Layer 1 Errors Broken cables Disconnected cables.
Cables connected to the wrong Intermittent cable connection Wrong cables used for the task Transceiver problems DCE cable problems.
DTE cable problems Devices turned off Troubleshooting Using show interfaces Useful for troubleshooting Layer1 Layer 2 in addition to Layer 3addressing.
Layer 1 Troubleshooting using show interfacesPhysical layer line status Up has Layer 1 connectivityBHM show interface s0 Down L1 problemSerial0 is up line protocol is up Administratively down disabled.
output omitted Last clearing of show interface counters never output omitted To reset BHM clear countersReceived 73 broadcasts 0 runts 0 giants 0 throttles0 input errors 0 CRC 0 frame 0 overrun 0 ignored 0 abort.
135 packets output 7361 bytes 0 underruns0 output errors 0 collisions 37 interface resets0 output buffer failures 0 output buffers swapped out54 carrier transitionsFaulty hardware Line interruptions .
bad hardwarecable or noise faulty hardware Layer 1 Troubleshooting using show interfacesThe show interfaces serial command Layer 1 Troubleshooting show controllers.
Router show controllers serial 0HD unit 0 idb 0x1086D4 driver structure at 0x10E568buffer size 1524 HD unit 0 V 35 DCE cable clockrate 56000 Troubleshooting Using show controllers serialThe show controllers serial Command.
Typical Layer 2 Errors Improperly configured serialinterfaces Improperly configured Ethernetinterfaces.
Improper encapsulation set Improper clock rate settings onserial interfaces Network interface card NIC Troubleshooting Using show cdp neighbors.
Troubleshooting Using show cdp neighbors detail Layer 2 Troubleshooting show interfacesBHM show interface serial 0 Data Link layer up or down Serial0 is up line protocol is up Are keepalives being received Hardware is HD64570.
Internet address is 172 17 0 2 16MTU 1500 bytes BW 1544 Kbit DLY 20000 usec rely 255 255 load 1 255Encapsulation HDLC loopback not set keepalive set 10 sec Last input 00 00 01 output 00 00 00 output hang neverLast clearing of show interface counters never.
output omitted Encapsulation must match atboth ends of connectionIf the interface is up and the line protocol is down a Layer 2 problem exists Among the possible causes are .
No keepalives No clock rate Mismatch in encapsulation type Layer 2 Troubleshooting If the interface is up and the line protocol is down aLayer 2 problem exists Indicates whether the IOS processes consider the.
interface usable Keepalives are defined as messages sent by onenetwork device to inform another network device thatthe virtual circuit between the two is still active If the interface misses three consecutive keepalives .
line protocol is down When the line is down the protocol is always down show interfaces Command Typical Layer 3 Errors Routing protocol not enabled.
Wrong routing protocol enabled Incorrect IP addresses Incorrect subnet masks Layer 3 Troubleshooting Using Pingvista ping SanJose1.
Type escape sequence to abort Sending 5 100 byte ICMP Echos to 192 168 1 2 timeout is 2seconds indicate a successful echo indicate the applicationSuccess rate is 60 percent 3 5 timed out waiting for an echo.
round trip min avg max 32 33 36 msExtended ping provides extra facilities for ping Troubleshooting Using traceroute CommandTest on a hop by hop basis Each time is the RTT.
Troubleshooting Routing IssuesThe show ip route Command Troubleshooting Routing IssuesThe show ip protocols Command Introduction to debug.
Debug syntax Used to display dynamic data and events as they Displays current events of the router example traffic on an interface error messages generated by nodes on the network.
protocol specific diagnostic packets Debug commands effect router performance due tohigh processor overhead Debug should be used sparingly to avoid disruptingnormal router operation .
Debug allRouter debug all But don t use as it can crash the system Debug output and system messages are sent to the To redirected to a Telnet client .
Router terminal monitor To add timestamps to debug messages Router config service timestamps debug uptimeTo Turn off debuggingRouter no debug all.
Router undebug all Layer 7 Troubleshooting Using TelnetCCNA 2 v3.1 Module 9 Basic Router Troubleshooting

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