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Sensation PerceptionUnit 3 Entry 1 Sensation PerceptionHow do we construct our representations ofthe external world .Sensation stimulation of sensory receptors eyes ears tongue etc and thetransmission of sensory information to the 5 senses sight sound touch taste smellPerception the psychological process.through which your brain interprets sensory Sensing the WorldSenses are nature s gift that suit anorganism s needs A frog feeds on flying insects a male.silkworm moth is sensitive to female sex attractant odor and we as human beingsare sensitive to sound frequencies thatrepresent the range of human voice Exploring the Senses.1 What stimuli cross our threshold forconscious awareness 2 Could we be influenced by stimuli tooweak subliminal to be perceived 3 Why are we unaware of unchanging.stimuli like a band aid on our skin PsychophysicsA study of the relationship betweenphysical characteristics of stimuli andour psychological experience with them .Physica Psychologica What stimuli can we detect l World l World At what intensity Light Brightness How sensitive are we to changingSound VolumeSugar Sweet. Several Concepts influence oursensation and perception 1 AbsoluteThreshold theweakest smallest.amount of a stimulusthat can be sensed ex can you taste asingle drop of lemonjuice in a bottle of. DetectionNo No No Yes YesObserver s ResponseTell when you the observer detect the light Several Concepts influence our.sensation and perception 2 DifferenceThreshold Thesmallest amount of adifference that can.be detectedbetween two stimuli Ex can you tell thedifference between 2orange paint chips.that are only a shadedifferent in color Difference ThresholdDifference Threshold also called justnoticeable difference JND .DifferenceObserver s ResponseTell when you observer detect a difference in the light Several Concepts influence oursensation and perception . 3 Subliminal Threshold When stimuliare below one s absolute thresholdfor conscious awareness Several concepts influence oursensation and perception . 4 Signal Detection Theory belief that wedistinguish and focus on different sensorystimuli based on their strengths the settingwe are in our physical state mood and Ex do you notice when someone walks into the.room When a teacher calls your name We focus on what we consider important Signal Detection Theory SDT Predicts how and when we detect thepresence of a faint stimulus signal amid.background noise other stimulation Detection depends on Person sCarol Lee Tony Stone Imagesexperience.ExpectationsMotivationLevel of fatigue Several concepts influence oursensation and perception . 5 Sensory Adaptation Process by which weadapt to the sensory stimuli in ourenvironment Ex walk into dark theater can t see at first Eyesadjust then you can see.Put a band aid on your arm and afteryou don t sense it Sensory AdaptationDiminished sensitivity as a consequence ofconstant stimulation .Put a band aid on your arm and after awhileyou don t sense it Subliminal ThresholdSubliminal Threshold When stimuli are below.one s absolute thresholdfor consciousawareness Kurt Scholz Superstock Subliminal Threshold. Can we unconsciously sense subliminal Without our conscious awareness of thestimuli can they have suggestive powers andinfluence our thoughts and or behaviors Subliminal Threshold.Can we unconsciously sense subliminal stimuli The answer to a certain extent seems to be yes Sometimes we feel what we do not know and cannotdescribe intuition Subliminal stimuli may evoke a feeling though not a.conscious awareness of the stimulus MUCH OF OUR INFORMATION PROCESSING OCCURSAUTOMATICALLY OUT OF SIGHT OFF THE RADAR SCREENOF OUR CONSCIOUS MIND http wtso net movie 346 1214 ... .Subliminal Threshold Without our conscious awareness of the stimuli canthey have suggestive powers and influence ourthoughts and or behaviors Subliminal messaging in advertising music self help tapes . Yes it is possible for them to have a subtle fleeting effect But there is no evidence of a strong or lasting influence onone s behavior Self help tape study 1991 We are vulnerable to placebo effect our expectations or what we.are told should happen Subliminal Threshold Priming The activation often unconsciously of certainassociations thus predisposing a person s.memory perception or reponse http www thepsychfiles com ges... those who saw pictures of animals wereinfluenced to see the horse Parts of the eye.1 Cornea Transparent tissue where lightenters the eye 2 Iris Muscle that expands and contractsto change the size of the opening pupil for light .3 Lens Focuses the light rays on the4 Retina Contains sensory receptors thatprocess visual information and sends itto the brain The Lens.Lens Transparentstructure behind thepupil that changesshape to focusimages on the retina .Accommodation Theprocess by which theeye s lens changesshape to help focusnear or far objects on.the retina 22 The LensNearsightedness Acondition in whichnearby objects are.seen more clearlythan distant objects Farsightedness Acondition in whichfaraway objects are.seen more clearlythan near objects Retina The light sensitive innersurface of the.eye containingreceptor rodsand cones inaddition to layersof other neurons. bipolar ganglioncells thatprocess visualinformation Optic Nerve Blind Spot .Optic nerve Carries neural impulses from the eyeto the brain Blind Spot Point where the opticnerve leaves the eye because there are no receptorcells located there This creates a blind spot Fovea Central point in the retina around which.the eye s cones cluster http www bergen org 25 PhotoreceptorsE R Lewis Y Y Zeevi F S Werblin 1969 Bipolar Ganglion Cells.Bipolar cells receive messages fromphotoreceptors and transmit them toganglion cells which are for the optic Visual Information ProcessingOptic nerves connect to the thalamus in the.middle of the brain and the thalamusconnects to the visual cortex Color ConstancyColor of an object remains the same underdifferent illuminations However when.context changes the color of an object maylook different R Beau Lotto at University College London Pages 85 88 http www clipsforclass com san... . Science of Sound clip How do you hear Sound travels through the air in waves andcreates vibrations Ever felt your clothes vibrating from loud music . Each vibration is called a cycle or wavelength Pitch how high or low a sound is Shorter wavelengths vibrate more frequently create a higher pitch Longer wavelengths vibrate fewer times. create a lower pitch The greater the number of cycles per second thehigher the pitch Loudness Amplitude height. The higher theamplitude of a wave the louder the sound Decibel A unitexpressing the loudness.of a sound Abbreviated Richard Kaylin Stone Getty ImagesLoudness of Sound Localization of SoundsBecause we have two ears sounds that.reach one ear faster than the other earcause us to localize the sound Hearing LossConduction HearingLoss Hearing loss.caused by damage tothe mechanicalsystem that conductssound waves to theSensorineural.Hearing Loss Hearing loss causedby damage to the http www clipsforclass com san... Tinnutus clip. Other Important SensesThe sense of touch is a mix of four distinctskin senses pressure warmth cold andBruce Ayers Stone Getty Images Skin Senses.Only pressure has identifiable receptors Allother skin sensations are variations ofpressure warmth cold and pain Pressure Vibration VibrationBurning hot Cold warmth and pain.Pain tells the body that How we experience pain dependssomething has gone on wrong Usually painresults from damage to our experiences and attentionthe skin and other.tissues A rare disease our physiologyexists in which the our cultural surroundingsafflicted person feels Biopsychosocialexplanation.Ashley Blocker right feels neither painnor extreme hot or cold Biopsychosocial Influences What Causes Pain Unlike vision the pain system is not located in.a simple nueral cord running from a sensingdevice to a definable brain area And there isno one type of stimulus that triggers pain aslight triggers vision and there are no specialpain receptors like rods and cones for vision . What Causes Pain Gate Control Theory The spine contains a neurological gate thateither blocks pain signals from being sent to thebrain or allows them to pass to the brain . Gate is opened by activity of pain signals Gate can be closed by stronger activity messages fromother areas of the body rubbing near the area of pain accupuncture or by information from the brain being distracted from.something in environment presence of endorphines Gate Control Theory One way to treat chronic pain is to stimulate itthrough massage by electrical stimulation oracupuncture Rubbing causes competitive.stimulation to pain thus reduces its effect Pain ControlPain can be controlled by a number oftherapies including drugs surgery acupuncture exercise hypnosis and even.thought distraction Hunter Hoffman www vrpain comTodd Richards and Aric Vills U W Pain Control Burn victims can be distracted by allowing them.to engage in illusory virtual reality Their brainscans show differences in pain perceptions Lamaze method of childbirth combines relaxation through deep breathing and muscle relaxation counterstimulation through gentle message .and distraction through focusing attention on apleasant object or picture â€œTouch is both the alpha and omega of affectionâ€ (James, 1890). Skin Senses. Only pressure has identifiable receptors. All other skin sensations are variations of pressure, warmth, cold and pain. Burning hot. Pressure. Vibration. Vibration. Cold, warmth and pain. Pain.