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Conflict Crisis and Change 1934 1989 The Triumph of Mao theCCP 1934 1949 Long March 1934 Causes Chiang Kai Shek led the KMT on the encirclements campaign against the.Jiangxi Soviet The fifth campaign was devised by Hans von Seekt and was a series ofblockhouse attacks that starved out the Soviet By October the communists had lost over half their land and 60 000 Because the communists abandoned guerilla tactics under the.influence of Otto Braun a soviet advisor and fought a series ofdisastrous battles against KMT Mao wanted to attack the KMT army from the rear but Braun refused andsuggested they force their way through the blockade and journey to thebase in Yunan . Long March 1934 Events 16 October 1934 Break out 87 000 troops begin the retreat led by Braun after six weeks theybroke through the blockhouses At the end of November they reachedthe Xiang river and lost over half their men fighting the KMT . January 1935 Mao takes over Leadership was given to Mao because Braun had allowed soldiers tocarry too much equipment and moved in a straight line causing thefailure of the operation January October 1935 Progress. Under Mao s leadership the Red Army changed direction and split up confusing the KMT At the Dadu river a party of soldiers swung acrossthe river gorge while under enemy fire then lowered the bridge for therest of the army to pass October 1935 Arrival. After fighting many battles and crossing over 6000 miles only 30 000troops reached the destination of Yunan Long March 1934 Results Communists had survived and found a new base safe from the KMT and Because of its high geological position the base in Yunan was well. Mao was hailed as the great hero and veteran of CCP The good behavior by the Red Army impressed the local people and manybegan to support the CCP The Long March became a legend and the fights such as the one at Daduriver became key propaganda events . War with Japan Causes 1931 Invasion Japan invade Manchuria Chiang does nothing to stop them preoccupied with CCP 1936 Extermination Campaigns. Chiang organizes extermination campaigns against the Communistsinstead of declaring war against Japan Dec 1936 United Front Zhiang Xueliang one of Chiang s generals agrees not to fight withcommunists After Chiang opposes this decision he is kidnapped by his.own troops and released only when he agrees to created a united War with Japan Events July 1937 Start of War Japan attacks Chinese troops at the Marco Polo Bridge marking thestart of the war . 1938 Japanese Control Over 1 Million Japanese troops in China By the end of the year allmajor ports and industrial commercial were under Japanese control The Japanese lacked the manpower and resources to fully hold all ofthe land they had captured enabling the Chinese to move back into.some of the rural areas Party s Involvement Chiang retreated before the invasion and gave up Nanking moving toSichuan where he was cut off from the industrialized areas of China Government became corrupt and power of warlords increased . Chiang governed like a dictator and tortured enemies of KMT with hisarmy of Blueshirts Did little to improve welfare problems housing education healthcare lives of peasants CCP soldiers went back to reclaim land left by Japanese . Carried out successful guerilla attacks against Japanese 1941 Three Alls Campaign Kill all Burn all Destroy all Aimed to turnpeasants against CCP but instead drove many to support them Life was better in CCP areas Land was given to peasants Rents andtaxes reduced Outdated practices abolished Women s Associations.founded Red Army treated peasants well Civil War Events Most thought KMT would win Army of 3 million trained and backed by Americans Held all major cities and railways . December 1945 General Marshall is sent to prevent war June 1946 The KMT launch a massive offensive in Northern China March 1947 Yunan is under KMT control PLA led by Lin Biao uses guerilla tactics to avoid large losses 1948 PLA big enough to fight a head on battle with KMT in the battle of.Huai Hai KMT lose 500 000 men and much equipment PLA capture Beijing and Shanghai January 1949 Chiang and 200 000 troops flee to Taiwan October 1 1949 The People s Republic of China is established under theleadership of the communist party . Strength Weaknesses Strength of CCP Mao s firm leadership was respected and PLA was under good control Peasants became impressed by the policies of the CCP and thebehavior of the PLA . Successful guerilla tactics from 1946 1948 Grew from 1 million in 1945 to 4 million by 1949 due to peasant KMT Weaknesses Chiang s government was corrupt US aid went to Chiang s family High inflation and Blueshirt brutality in KMT areas reduced popularity . KMT was the party of the landlords US governments gave 200 million in aid since 1945 cut off aid soonbefore KMT lost KMT forces fell to 1 500 000 Changes under Mao 1949. Land Reform Mao had already begun giving away land to the peasants during the war Mao s first task was to take away the power from the landlords The Agrarian Reform Law was passed in June 1950 to speed up land At people s courts peasants were encouraged to hold mass meetings.at which they publicly humiliated landlords Turned increasingly violent by 1952 2 75 million landlords hadbeen killed By 1952 50 million hectares of land was taken from landlords and given to Land reform was mostly unsuccessful as peasants did not have the.equipment or money to cultivate the land As a result of this mutual aid teams were formed to share equipment land or animals First Five Year Plan 1953 1957. Reasons By 1952 inflation was brought down and a new currency wasintroduced Mao called upon Soviet advisors and managed to secure a large loan Population in cities increased rapidly due to migration for rural areas . Main focus areas were coal steel and chemicals Most private companies were controlled by the government those thatweren t were taxed heavily until the owners gave the government control 700 new production plants were built Most targets for production were achieved except oil . National expenditure rose tremendously Aided by over 10 000 soviet advisors also provided soviet equipment Light industry was neglected causing a slow growth in consumer goods Cooperatives Reason. Peasant farms were too small to be efficient Mao feared peasants would become landowners Lower stage cooperatives 1953 Peasant encouraged to join 30 50 other families to pool land equipment and labor . Rent was paid to the families in return for the land Higher stage cooperatives 1956 200 300 families Widespread towards end of 5 year plan Only receive wages no rent. Peasants did not own land anymore Hundred Flowers Campaign Events Launched by Mao in 1957 who encouraged free discussion andcriticism of the government and himself . Mao may have launched the campaign to root out anti governmentrevolutionaries or he may launched it to raise popularity In 1957 Mao urged CCP officials to be prepared for criticism from thepublic but he did not anticipate the severity of the public s reactions Reaction. There was a sudden rush to respond and criticize Mao and the CCP Many intellectuals artists writers and teachers attacked party officials policies and even Mao himself In June 1957 Mao cracked down on CCP critics with an anti rightist Leading critics forced to retract statements and some were sacked . Many intellectuals were sent to thought reform Great Leap Forward Causes The 2nd Five Year Plan 1958 61 China s manpower was not efficiently utilized with high unemployment intowns and cities . Recent developments in agriculture and industry were too slow Mao wasanxious for change Mao was determined to turn China into a powerful industrial nation intending for Chinese economy to overtake Western economies in 15 30 Although China was short on money they were not short on labour . Great Leap Forward Events Party Propaganda Posters slogans Loudspeakers playing music and stirring speeches Industry. Thousands of small factories were build New higher industrial and agricultural targets were set Backyard Steel Small furnaces in villages and towns Turned out over 11 million tons of steel from scrap metal or utensils . Communes Average population was 30 000 By end of 1958 90 of the population were in communes Peasants had to hand over their land Life in communes all peasants ate together everything provided.by commune Great Leap Forward Industry Small factories were too inefficient Backyard steel was unusable as it was impure . Used all of the coal and steel so railways could not be built andmachines could not be run Injured the country s infrastructure Used all of the family s metals now products made with the steelwere severely weakened . Machines and workers overworked Agriculture To meet quotas peasants gave too much rice to the government starving themselves Natural disasters reduced the yield over 20 million die from starvation.and disease Communes Too large to be run efficiently Peasants resented the loss of land Post Great Leap Forward Mao steps down from China s head of state position . China now controlled by President Liu Shaoqi Prime Minister Zhou Enlaiand CCP General Secretary Deng Xiaoping They introduced new policies abandoning the GLF Thousands of small factories were closed People encouraged to start businesses . Millions returned from manufacturing to farming Commune size reduced heavily Private plots returned to peasants The Impact of the CulturalRevolution. Mao s Motives Mao s position in the CCP was weakened greatly after GLF he wanted to Defeat his moderate opponents Regain political supremacy The moderates led by Deng and Liu Shaoqi wanted to introduce incentives.for individual work large private plots higher wages Mao felt that China was beginning to deviate from its communist ideals Mao wanted to change education into a more practical and peasantinfluenced form of teaching He argued that education had producedbureaucrats who did not reflect the ideals of the communist revolution . Mao s Return 1965 Mao gains Lin Biao s support All ranks of the PLA are abolished Each soldier is given the little red book a compilation of Mao s 1966 Mao announces to the young people of China that the communist.revolution was being endangered by the leaders of the CCP Schools are shut down for 6 months in 1966 for a rewrite of thecurriculum to include more information on communist ideals Leads to the formation of the Red Guard The Red Guards. Given the right to travel for free on the railway to attend mass rallies This great freedom soon led to more radical protest Attacked the Four Olds ideas culture habits and customs using Attacking all shops selling bourgeoisie merchandise burnt downlibraries etc . Attacked anyone with authority and reactionaries by 1967 over400 000 died and many others were maimed and tortured The Cult of Mao The Red Guards turned on Lin Shaoqi who had succeeded Mao as head of Red Guards broke into his house and forced him to write a confession of.his crimes Eventually he was expelled from the party in 1969 and diedsoon after Mao was worshipped as the new emperor Almost all houses had hisportrait and many bowed to it in the morning and at night Peasants and factory workers gathered to read quotes from his little red. Disbanding the Red Guards In 1967 Mao attempted to restore order Schools were reopened PLA were used to restore order in areas with heavy Red Guard By 1968 law and order had been restored in most areas . By that time 120 million people under 45 could not read or write Impact of Cultural Revolution Industry Specialization was discouraged All individual work incentives were abolished . All workers given equal wages Education Students did no sit exams Many went to the countryside to learn from the peasants 120 million under 45 were illiterate . CountrysideDid little to improve welfare problems: housing, education, healthcare, lives of peasants. CCP. CCP soldiers went back to reclaim land left by Japanese. Carried out successful guerilla attacks against Japanese. 1941: Three Alls Campaign: Kill all, Burn all, Destroy all. Aimed to turn peasants against CCP, but instead drove many to support them.