Report CopyRight/DMCA Form For : Colonial Encounters 1750 1914
Imperialism Colonialism, AP WOR L D H I ST ORY, Two Views of Imperialism. Take up the White Man s burden Whatever the overseas slave. Send forth the best ye breed trade has failed to do the power. Go send your sons to exile of modern capitalistic, To serve your captives need exploitation assisted by modern. To wait in heavy harness, engines of destruction may yet. On fluttered folk and wild , Your new caught sullen peoples . succeed in accomplishing , Half devil and half child For the from the evils of the. By open speech and simple latter scientifically applied and. An hundred times made plain enforced there is no escape for. To seek another s profit the African Its destructive. And work another s gain , effects are not spasmodic they. Take up the White Man s burden , The savage wars of peace . are permanent It kills not the, Fill full the mouth of Famine body merely but the soul It. And let the sickness cease wrecks his polity uproots him. from the land invades his family, Rudyard Kipling The White Man s life destroys his natural pursuits. and occupations claims his, whole time enslaves him in his. own home , Definitions , Colonialism the policy or practice of. acquiring full or partial political control over, another country occupying it with settlers . and exploiting it economically for the gain of, the mother country . Imperialism a policy of extending a, country s power and influence through. colonization use of military force or other, Colonialism is a part of imperialism. Motives for Imperialism, Europe sees Africa Asia as critical to Industrial Revolution. Import raw materials oil tin rubber etc, Export manufactured goods can t sell enough home to make a profit. Industrial countries want constant economic growth depression is scary . Colonies seen as crucial to national survival, Social Darwinism. Some Europeans saw it as moral, The British Empire is the greatest instrument for good that the world has. seen British colonial leader Henry Curzon, A Second Wave of European. First Wave of European Second Wave of European, Colonialism Colonialism. 1500s 1600s 1750 1900, In the Western Hemisphere In Africa and Asia. Americas , Spain and Portugal were major New countries involved . players at first Germany Italy Belgium the U S . Second round British French Japan, Devastated native populations No massive devastation done to. through disease native peoples right away at, Less direct control focus on More complete control needed to. trade network key points fuel industrial growth, Europeans chose the path of Europeans preferred informal. conquest and, Construction of outright, 2nd wave colonial control. European empires in cheaper, Africa and Asia, lessinvolved. military force or the threat of using new weaponry cause. industrialization, Colonial Asia in the Early 20th Century. Colonial Africa in the Early 20th, Various Paths to Colonial Status. India and Indonesia colonial, conquest grew out of earlier. interactions with European trading, India became controlled by Britain. Indonesia became controlled by the, Neither country had a clear cut plan for. Conquest evolved slowly as local, authorities and European traders made. and unmade a variety of alliances, British authorities meeting Acquisition of India and Indonesia fairly. with Mughal leaders easy because both were fragmented. territories with no political unity, Various Paths to Colonial Status. Australia and New, Zealand both taken, over by the British. Similar to the earlier, colonization of North, Conquest accompanied by . massive European, settlement and diseases, that reduced native. Became settler colonies , White Settlers in Australia. neo European societies in, the Pacific, Various Paths to Colonial Status. Africa mainland, Southeast Asia and, the Pacific islands . occurred later in, the 2nd half of the, 19th century. More abruptly and, deliberately than, anywhere else. The Scramble for Africa , Until the 1800s Europeans. knew very little about Africa, 1840 David Livingstone. went to Africa, Traveled around and explored, there for 30 years. He lost contact with the, outside world for 6 years in. American Journalist Henry, Stanley was sent to look for. him ended up leading, several expeditions himself, Journeys of Livingstone and. Stanley increased interest in Meeting of Livingstone. Africa and its many resources and Stanley, The Scramble for. One European country after another began, to claim parts of Africa. Able to take African territories easily because. they had superior weapons and a lot of, 1885 the Berlin Conference Several. European nations met in Berlin to decide, how to divide up Africa. No African leaders invited, Peaceful negotiations made between the. European powers that officially decided who, got what . By 1914 Europeans controlled 90 of, European powers often had to use extensive. and bloody military action to maintain, control within their acquired African. The Berlin Conference territories, Varying Responses to European Encroachment. Some tried to enlist Europeans in, their own internal struggles for. power or in their external rivalries, with neighboring states. Some tried to pit imperial powers, against each other. Some wanted to fight back against, the Europeans, Some believed resistance was futile. and acceptance of the situation was, the only option. Some negotiated with Europeans in, an effort to keep as much. independence and power as possible African Resistance to Colonial. Under European Rule Cooperation, Many groups and individuals. willingly cooperated with colonial, authorities, Many men found employment . status and security in the, European led armed forces. Colonial rulers expensive in, short supply and could rarely. communicate with their subjects, Result local intermediaries needed. Local intermediaries typically from, elite or governing families. Local intermediaries could retain their, status and gain wealth by exercising. authority at the local level, Under European Rule Cooperation. Many found it, beneficial to pursue, Western education. Western educated class, served the colonial state . European businesses and, Christian missions as, teachers clerks . translators and lower , level administrators, Some with even more. education became, lawyers doctors , engineers journalists etc . Under European Rule Rebellion, Periodic rebellions. both big and small , a constant problem for, colonial regimes. everywhere, Most famous colonial, rebellion the Indian. Rebellion of 1857 1858, Also known as the Sepoy, Rebellion or Sepoy Mutiny. Sepoys Indian soldiers, in the service of European. Indian Rebellion of 1857 1858, Triggered by the introduction. into the colony s forces of a new, cartridge smeared with animal. fat from cows and pigs, Remember Indian troops , Hindus and Muslims. Hindus find cows sacred, Muslims regard pigs as unclean. Both viewed this military, innovation as a plot to harm them. and convert them to Christianity, Indian troops in Bengal mutinied. against their British superiors, Indian Rebellion of 1857 1858. Indian Rebellion spread from, Bengal to other regions and other. social groups, Many social groups within India, were upset with British colonial. Local rulers lost power, Landlords deprived of their estates. and or rent, Peasants overtaxed and exploited by, urban moneylenders and landlords. Weavers unemployed displaced by, Religious leaders opposed to Christian. missionary preaching, Indian Rebellion of 1857 1858. Crushed in 1858 but, important results followed , Widening of the racial divide in. colonial India between native, Indians and their British rulers . eroded British tolerance for their, British became more conservative. and cautious when it came to trying, to change Indian society didn t. want another rebellion, British government assumed direct. control over India ended the, British East India Company s rule. Colonial Empires with a Difference, Major factor. distinguishing the, rulers from the ruled, Education for colonial. subjects very, Limited to practical, Europeans were afraid. that education and, knowledge would lead to, power for colonial. Colonial Empires with a Difference, Colonies with large. European settler, populations blatant, pattern of racial. segregation, Example apartheid, Racial segregation in South. Racial system provided for, separate homelands , educational systems . residential areas public, facilities etc , Colonial Empires with a Difference. European powers were much more, involved and hands on with their. colonial states in the 19th century, Affected the daily lives of people far. more than empires had in the past, Centralized tax collecting agencies. New modes of transportation and, communication, Imposed changes in landholding. Integration of colonial economies into, global trade network. European factories on Public health and sanitation measures. the west coast of, Colonial Empires with a Difference. European colonizers felt the, need to count classify and. organize their colonial, Wanted a way to manage the. unfamiliar complex varied and, changing societies that they now. controlled, Made colonial administration, Ex In African colonies . Europeans identified and, sometimes even invented distinct. tribes each with its own, territory language customs . chief etc , Colonial Empires with a Difference, European colonial policies contradicted their. own values and practices at home, European Nations European Colonies. Becoming more democratic Were mostly dictatorships used to. create order and stability , Swept up in nationalism Total opposite of national. independence, Christian and Enlightenment idea Racial divisions ranked racial. of human equality classifications etc , Industrialization and Modernization discouraged. modernization because Europeans did not want, modernization to cause opposition. to colonial rule, African Women and, the Colonial Economy. In pre colonial times, African women , Were active farmers. Were responsible for planting , weeding and harvesting. Prepared the food, Cared for the children, Were allocated their own. fields with which they could, feed their families, Were involved in local trade. Enjoyed some economic, independence, African Women and. the Colonial Economy, Under colonial rule men, moved into wage labor or. cash crop agriculture, This put A LOT more, responsibility on women . Total responsibility for domestic, food production. Had to also supply food to men, in the cities, Took over traditionally male. tasks breaking the ground for, planting milking cows . supervising the herds etc , African Women and, the Colonial Economy. Result many men and, women began to live separate. lives and develop different, Men in the cities working for wages. Women in the villages focusing on, subsistence agriculture. Many married couples no, longer lived together, Women started to build closer. relationships with their own family, instead of their husband s. Many women became the, heads of their households Portrait of a Luo Woman from. Assessing Colonial Development, Clear results of economic. development within, European colonies in the, 19th 20th centuries . 1 Colonial rule facilitated, the integration of Asian and. African economies into a, global network of exchange. More land and labor devoted to, production for the global market. 2 Nowhere did a, And obviously many of these, ex colonies have yet to develop. breakthrough to modern, a modern industrial society industrial society occur. Assessing Colonial Development, 3 The appearance of. some elements of, modernization, Modern administrative and. bureaucratic structures, Schools used to train the. intermediaries that were so, crucial to colonial rule. Communication and, transportation railroads , motorways ports telegraphs . postal services, Modest health care provisions, part of the civilizing. The Building of an African Railway , mission 1905, . Indians donâ€™t like it â€“ especially the high castes who feel like the social order is somewhat threatened by the changes. Mixing of cultures in the upper ruling classes, met w/ suspicion all around. Southeast Asia (Indonesia) As ruled by the French â€“ Starts with the rule of Strait of Malacca + Singapore as a stopping point to China/etc.