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Chapter 12 Data and DatabaseAdministrationModern DatabaseManagement.
7th EditionJeffrey A Hoffer Mary B Prescott Fred R McFadden 2005 by Prentice Hall 1 Objectives.
Definition of terms List functions and roles of data database administration Describe role of data dictionaries and informationrepositories Compare optimistic and pessimistic concurrency control.
Describe problems and techniques for data security Describe problems and techniques for data recovery Describe database tuning issues and list areas wherechanges can be done to tune the database Describe importance and measures of data quality.
Describe importance and measures of data availabilityChapter 12 2005 by Prentice Hall 2 Traditional AdministrationDefinitions Data Administration A high level function.
that is responsible for the overallmanagement of data resources in anorganization including maintaining corporate wide definitions and standards Database Administration A technical.
function that is responsible for physicaldatabase design and for dealing with technicalissues such as security enforcement database performance and backup andChapter 12 2005 by Prentice Hall 3.
Traditional Data Administration Data policies procedures standards Planning Data conflict ownership resolution Internal marketing of DA concepts.
Managing the data repositoryChapter 12 2005 by Prentice Hall 4 Traditional DatabaseAdministration Functions Selection of hardware and software.
Installing upgrading DBMS Tuning database performance Improving query processing performance Managing data security privacy and Data backup and recovery.
Chapter 12 2005 by Prentice Hall 5 Evolving Approaches toData Administration Blend data and database administration into one role Fast track development monitoring development.
process analysis design implementation maintenance Procedural DBAs managing quality of triggers andstored procedures eDBA managing Internet enabled database.
applications PDA DBA data synchronization and personaldatabase management Data warehouse administrationChapter 12 2005 by Prentice Hall 6.
Data WarehouseAdministration New role coming with the growth in datawarehouses Similar to DA DBA roles.
Emphasis on integration and coordinationof metadata data across many data sources Specific roles Support decision support applications Manage data warehouse growth.
Establish service level agreements regardingdata warehouses and data martsChapter 12 2005 by Prentice Hall 7 Open Source DBMSs An alternative to proprietary packages.
such as Oracle Microsoft SQL Server orMicrosoft Access mySQL is an example of open source Less expensive than proprietary Source code available for modification.
Chapter 12 2005 by Prentice Hall 8 Chapter 12 2005 by Prentice Hall 9 Database Security Database Security Protectionof the data against accidental or.
intentional loss destruction or Increased difficulty due toInternet access and client servertechnologiesChapter 12 2005 by Prentice Hall 10.
Figure 12 3 Possible locations of data security threatsChapter 12 2005 by Prentice Hall 11 Threats to Data Security Accidental losses attributable to Human error.
Software failure Hardware failure Theft and fraud Improper data access Loss of privacy personal data .
Loss of confidentiality corporate data Loss of data integrity Loss of availability through e g sabotage Chapter 12 2005 by Prentice Hall 12 Data Management.
Software Security Features Views or subschemas Integrity controls Authorization rules User defined procedures.
Encryption Authentication schemes Backup journalizing and checkpointingChapter 12 2005 by Prentice Hall 13 Views and Integrity Controls.
Subset of the database that is presented to one ormore users User can be given access privilege to view withoutallowing access privilege to underlying tables Integrity Controls.
Protect data from unauthorized use Domains set allowable values Assertions enforce database conditionsChapter 12 2005 by Prentice Hall 14 Authorization Rules.
Controls incorporated in the datamanagement system Restrict access to data actions that people can take on data.
Authorization matrix for Subjects Objects Actions Constraints.
Chapter 12 2005 by Prentice Hall 15 Figure 12 4 Authorization matrixChapter 12 2005 by Prentice Hall 16 Figure 12 5a Authorization table for subjectsFigure 12 5b Authorization table for objects.
Figure 12 6 Oracle9i privilegesSome DBMSs also providecapabilities for user definedprocedures to customize theauthorization process.
Chapter 12 2005 by Prentice Hall 17 Encryption the codingor scrambling of data sothat humans cannot readChapter 12 2005 by Prentice Hall 18.
Authentication Schemes Goal obtain a positiveidentification of the user Passwords First line of defense Should be at least 8 characters long.
Should combine alphabetic andnumeric data Should not be complete words orpersonal information Should be changed frequently.
Chapter 12 2005 by Prentice Hall 19 Authentication Schemes cont Strong Authentication Passwords are flawed .
Users share them with each other They get written down could be copied Automatic logon scripts remove need to explicitly type them in Unencrypted passwords travel the Internet Possible solutions .
Two factor e g smart card plus PIN Three factor e g smart card biometric PIN Biometric devices use of fingerprints retinal scans etc for positive ID Third party authentication using secret keys digital.
certificatesChapter 12 2005 by Prentice Hall 20 Security Policies andProcedures Personnel controls.
Hiring practices employee monitoring security Physical access controls Equipment locking check out procedures screen Maintenance controls Maintenance agreements access to source code .
quality and availability standards Data privacy controls Adherence to privacy legislation access rulesChapter 12 2005 by Prentice Hall 21 Database Recovery.
Mechanism for restoring a databasequickly and accurately after loss or Recovery facilities Backup Facilities Journalizing Facilities.
Checkpoint Facility Recovery ManagerChapter 12 2005 by Prentice Hall 22 Backup Facilities Automatic dump facility that produces.
backup copy of the entire database Periodic backup e g nightly weekly Cold backup database is shut downduring backup Hot backup selected portion is shut.
down and backed up at a given time Backups stored in secure off siteChapter 12 2005 by Prentice Hall 23 Journalizing Facilities Audit trail of transactions and.
database updates Transaction log record of essentialdata for each transaction processedagainst the database Database change log images of.
updated data Before image copy before modification After image copy after modificationProduces an audit trailChapter 12 2005 by Prentice Hall 24.
Figure 12 8 Database audit trailFrom the backup andlogs databases can berestored in case ofdamage or loss.
Chapter 12 2005 by Prentice Hall 25 Checkpoint Facilities DBMS periodically refuses to acceptnew transactions system is in a quiet state.
Database and transaction logs aresynchronizedThis allows recovery manager to resume processingfrom short period instead of repeating entire dayChapter 12 2005 by Prentice Hall 26.
Recovery and RestartProcedures Switch Mirrored databases Restore Rerun Reprocess transactionsagainst the backup.
Transaction Integrity Commit or abortall transaction changes Backward Recovery Rollback Applybefore images Forward Recovery Roll Forward Apply.
after images preferable to restore rerun Chapter 12 2005 by Prentice Hall 27 Figure 12 9a Basic recovery techniquesChapter 12 2005 by Prentice Hall 28 Figure 12 9b Rollforward.
Chapter 12 2005 by Prentice Hall 29 Database FailureAborted transactionsPreferred recovery rollbackAlternative Rollforward to state just prior to abort.
Incorrect dataPreferred recovery rollbackAlternative 1 rerun transactions not including inaccurate data updatesAlternative 2 compensating transactions System failure database intact .
Preferred recovery switch to duplicate database Alternative 1 rollback Alternative 2 restart from checkpoint Database destruction Preferred recovery switch to duplicate database.
Alternative 1 rollforward Alternative 2 reprocess transactionsChapter 12 2005 by Prentice Hall 30 Concurrency Control Problem in a multiuser environment .
simultaneous access to data canresult in interference and data loss Solution Concurrency Control The process of managing simultaneousoperations against a database so that.
data integrity is maintained and theoperations do not interfere with eachother in a multi user environmentChapter 12 2005 by Prentice Hall 31 Figure 12 10 Lost Update.
Simultaneous access causes updates to cancel each otherA similar problem is the inconsistent read problemChapter 12 2005 by Prentice Hall 32 Concurrency ControlTechniques.
Serializability Finish one transaction before starting Locking Mechanisms The most common way of achievingserialization.
Data that is retrieved for the purpose ofupdating is locked for the updater No other user can perform update untilChapter 12 2005 by Prentice Hall 33 Figure 12 11 Updates with locking for concurrency control.
This prevents the lost update problemChapter 12 2005 by Prentice Hall 34 Locking Mechanisms Locking level Database used during database updates.
Table used for bulk updates Block or page very commonly used Record only requested row fairly commonly used Field requires significant overhead impractical Types of locks .
Shared lock Read but no update permitted Usedwhen just reading to prevent another user fromplacing an exclusive lock on the record Exclusive lock No access permitted Used whenpreparing to update.
Chapter 12 2005 by Prentice Hall 35 Deadlock An impasse that results when two or moretransactions have locked common resources andeach waits for the other to unlock their resources.
Figure 12 13A deadlock situationUserA and UserB will waitforever for each other torelease their locked resources .
Chapter 12 2005 by Prentice Hall 36 Managing Deadlock Deadlock prevention Lock all records required at the beginning of atransaction.
Two phase locking protocol Growing phase Shrinking phase May be difficult to determine all needed resourcesin advance.
Deadlock Resolution Allow deadlocks to occur Mechanisms for detecting and breaking them Resource usage matrixChapter 12 2005 by Prentice Hall 37.
Versioning Optimistic approach to concurrency control Instead of locking Assumption is that simultaneous updateswill be infrequent.
Each transaction can attempt an update as The system will reject an update when itsenses a conflict Use of rollback and commit for thisChapter 12 2005 by Prentice Hall 38.
Figure 12 14 The use of versioningBetter performance than lockingChapter 12 2005 by Prentice Hall 39 Managing Data Quality Data Steward Liaisons between IT and.
business units Five Data Quality Issues Security policy and disaster recovery Personnel controls Physical access controls.
Maintenance controls hardware and software Data protection and privacyChapter 12 2005 by Prentice Hall 40 Data Dictionaries andRepositories.
Data dictionary Documents data elements of a database System catalog System created database that describes all database Information Repository.
Stores metadata describing data and data processing Information Repository Dictionary System Software tool managing controlling access to informationrepositoryChapter 12 2005 by Prentice Hall 41.
Data and Database Administration Modern Database Management 7th Edition Jeffrey A. Hoffer, Mary B. Prescott, Fred R. McFadden Objectives Definition of terms List functions and roles of data/database administration Describe role of data dictionaries and information repositories Compare optimistic and pessimistic concurrency control Describe problems and techniques for data security Describe ...

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