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Decision Making Manual A Toolkitfor Making Moral DecisionsWilliam J Frey UPRM Jos A Cruz Cruz UPRM Chuck Huff St Olaf . Syllabus asSocial Contract Consent free and informed Quid Pro Quo mutually beneficial exchange Safe Exit. FIC free and informed consent The right of a riskbearer to participate in the public decision as to theacceptability of that risk Includes knowledgerequirements and absence of compulsion Information. Area of academic concentration Reason for taking course Best educational experience Reading and listening in English There is an analogy between design.problems and ethical problemsDesign Problem Ethical ProblemConstruct a prototype that Construct a solution thatoptimizes or satisfices realizes ethical values justice designated specifications responsibility reasonableness .respect and safety Conflicts between Resolve conflicts betweenspecifications are resolved values moral vs moral orthrough integration of moral vs non moral byspecifications integration.Prototype must be Implement solution overimplemented over background resource technical andconstraints interest constraints Decision Making in Business Rational Choice Method Textbook Lawrence.and Weber Issue Management Process 32 Identify Issue Analyze Issue Generate Options. Take Action Evaluate Results Evaluating and ranking given results Problem solving in computing can bemodeled on software design. The software development cycle can be presented in terms offour stages 1 Problem Specification2 Solution Generation3 Solution Testing.4 Solution Implementation Generate or create options that embody or realize ethicalvalue or worth We don t find them we make them The Difference between choice and problem . In choice one chooses among existing options byapplying different frameworks such as ethicalframeworks Text 86 Virtues An action is ethical when it aligns with good Utilitarian An action is ethical when net benefits.exceed net costs Rights An action is ethical when basic human rightsare respected Justice An action is ethical when benefits and costsare fairly distributed. Problem Solving We do not find a solution but create one We do not evaluate existing choices in terms of Instead we use the standards to guide theimagination in brainstorming and designing.solutions that respond concretely to the situationin question Problem SolvingSpecifying the Problem Prepare a Socio Technical System STS table. an intellectual tool to help us recognize patterns inthe way technology is used and produced Components Hardware Software Physical Surroundings Stakeholders people groups roles Procedures Laws Criminal Law Civil Law Statutes Regulations Information Systems collecting storing .transferring Other Components Financial Markets Rate Structure Power Systems Environment Technological Context Supply Chain A STS is a system The components are related and STSs embody values. Moral Justice Respect Responsibility Trust Integrity Non Moral Financial Efficiency Sustainability STSs exhibit trajectories i e coordinated paths of 1 Identify key components of the STSPart Level of Hardware Software Physical Stakeholders Procedures Laws Information.Analysis Surround People Groups Collectionings and Roles and StorageStructuresIndividualOrganization.Institution Identify parts that embody valuesHardware Software Physical Stakeholders Procedures Laws InformationSurround People Collectionings Groups and and Storage.Roles StructuresResponsibilityEnvironment Classify the problem Disagreement on Facts. Did the supervisor sexually harass the employee What happened there are two different Disagreement on Concepts Has the supervisor created a hostile environment Meaning of hostile environment Conflicts Conflict between moral values Toysmart either honors property claims of creditors or privacy.rights of customers Conflicts between moral and non moral values In order to get the chips to clients on time LaRue has told the quality control team to skip environmental tests and falsify results A key value becomes vulnerable Online activity has magnified the potential harms of cyberslander against companies like. Immediate Midterm or Remote Harms Is it the case that Therac 25 patients are receiving radiation overdoses Table summarizing problem classification With Generic Solutions Problem Disagreement Value Conflict Situational.Solution ConstraintsFactual Conceptual Integrate Tradeoff Resource Technical Problem SolvingSolution Generation. Solution Generation Don t fall into the dilemma trap Assumption that all ethical problems in business offer only twosolution forms do the right thing financially or do the right thing Brainstorm. Do exercises to unlock creative thought Start with an individual list Share your list with others while suspending criticism Once you have a preliminary list set a quota refine it Eliminate solutions that are impractical. Combine solutions one is part of another one is plan A the other plan B Test solutions globally and quickly to trim them down to a manageable list Use more than one frame when generating How would an engineer specify the problem How would a lawyer specify the problem . How would a manager characterize the problem How would a politician specify the problem How would a financial expert or economist specify the Try to integrate these different framings Refined Solution List.Alternatives Responsiveness to Global Ethical Test Global FeasibilityCriteria ProblemAlternative 1Alternative 2Alternative 3. Generic Solutions For every occasion Gather more information Nolo Contendere Be diplomatic Negotiate with the different parties Look for a win win solution. Oppose Stand up to authority Organize opposition Documentand publicize the wrong Exit Get a transfer Look for another job Live to fight another Organize these as plans A B C etc Try one then the other if thefirst doesn t work . Solution TestingReversibility Harm Benefits Publicity Test Solutions Develop a solution evaluation matrix Test the ethical implications of each solution. See if the solution violates the code Carry out a global feasibility assessment of the solution What are the situational constraints Will these constraints block implementation Solution Evaluation Matrix.Alternative Test Reversibility Harm Benefits Publicity Values Code Will it Work Test Corporate or Feasibility ProfessionalAlternative 1Alternative 2.Alternative 3 Reversibility Does the action still look good when viewed from thestandpoint of key stakeholders Agent projects into standpoint of those targeted by the.action and views it through their eyes Avoid extremes of too little and too much identificationwith stakeholder go beyond your egocentricstandpoint but don t become lost in the perspective ofthe other . Harm Benefits What are the likely harms and benefits that will follow from theaction under consideration What is their magnitude and range How are they distributed . Which alternative produces the most benefits coupled with theleast harms Avoid too much trying to factor in all consequences and toolittle leaving out significant consequences Publicity Test. What are the values embedded in the actionyou are considering Is it responsible or irresponsible Just or unfair Respectful or disrespectful Would you want to be publically associated.with this action given the values it embodies People would view you as responsible just orrespectful irresponsible unjust biased disrespectful Code of Ethics Test. How does the action accord with yourprofession s or company s code of ethics How does the action accord with the keyvalues professed by your company orprofession . Solution ImplementationWill it work given the backgroundconstraints A Feasibility Test Will it Work Restate your global feasibility analysis. Are there resource constraints Are these fixed or negotiable Are there technical or manufacturing constraints Are these fixed or negotiable Are there interest constraints . Are these fixed or negotiable Feasibility MatrixAlternative Resource Interest TechnicalConstraintTime Cost Individual Organizational Legal Available Manufacturability.TechnologyAlternative 1Alternative 2Alternative 3 What if there are major constraints . Try out what Westin calls the intermediateimpossible Practical Companion 38 Take your ethically financially technically ideal Test its feasibility If it is lacking Modify it as little as possible until it becomes feasible .Then implement the intermediate impossible Final Considerations Has your problem shifted Check over your refined solution list and your finalsolution Sometimes the process moves from one.problem to another If so re specify your problemgiven what you have learned Have you opened all possible doors to solvingyour problem Multiple framings Resisting dilemma trap. Some Readings Anthony Weston 2002 A Practical Companion to Ethics Second Edition Oxford UK Oxford University Press Weston has several excellent suggestions for brainstorming solutions to ethicalproblems He also discusses how to avoid the dilemma trap . Good Computing Book under development through Jones and Bartlett Huff Frey Cruz The manuscript describes the four stage software development cycle that is usedas a model here for problem solving Carolyn Whitbeck 1998 Ethics in engineering practice and research .Cambridge UK Cambridge University Press Whitbeck provides an illuminating discussion of the analogy between ethics anddesign problems Flow Charts Flow Charts. Flow Charts Flow ChartsSyllabus as Social Contract. Consent (free and informed) Quid Pro Quo (mutually beneficial exchange) Safe Exit. FIC (free and informed consent)â€”The right of a risk bearer to participate in the public decision as to the acceptability of that risk.