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EnvironmentalJournalismJOU 9742 FIMS UWOBill Kovarik PhD What is environmental.
journalism Why is it important Journalism is a profession conveying news information andopinion through mass media to various audiences .
an essential component of democracy protected by The Universal Declaration of Human RightsArticle 19 Section 2 b of the Charter of Canada.
First Amendment Constitution of the US European Convention for the Protection ofHuman Rights Environmental Journalism is NEW relatively new as a beat 1970s but part of an.
ongoing tradition of reporting about conservation technologyand public health ABOUT SCIENCE helping public understandenvironmental science along with economic and politicalissues about the environment.
INFORMING like other forms of journalism orientedtowards informing the public with accredited facts and a broadarray of analysis and opinion IMPROVING becoming more professional in recentyears thanks in part to SEJ but also.
CHANGING undergoing severe cutbacks in US andCanadian newsrooms NEEDED paradoxically its less available at a time whenit is needed most Journalism Associations.
National or international Canadian Association of Journalists USSociety of Professional Journalists British Association of Journalists InterAmerican Press Assn etc Media or professional specialization Radio TV News Directors OnlineJournalists Association Society of News Design .
Career development minority National Lesbian and Gay JournalistsAssn National Assn of Black Journalists National Assn of Hispanic JournalistsSubject specialization military sports education criminal justice religion agriculture science health care Society of Environmental Journalists US Canada .
National Assn of Science Writers US Canadian Assn of Science Writers Canada EJ associations US Natl Assn ScienceWriters 1934.
Canadian Assn ScienceWriters 1971 Society EnvironmentalJournalists 1990 International Federation.
Environmental Journalists World Federation ScienceJournalists 2002 Environmental Communication Academic definition EC is the pragmatic.
and constitutive vehicle for our understandingof the environment as well as ourrelationships to the natural world it is thesymbolic medium that we use in constructingenvironmental problems and negotiating.
society s different responses to them Robert Cox Environmental Communication and the PublicSphere Thousand Oaks Sage 2006 Studies of EJsDavid Sachsman Joanne Valenti et al .
In 2008 only 36 newspapers 10 TV stations self identified staffer as an environmental reporter Number has declined drastically since then Half spend only 1 3 of time on environmental issues Only 26 cover environment more than 2 3 of the time.
About 24 of Ejs majored in science compared to 3 ofother journalists Other attributes age gender education levels and job satisfaction levels were the Studies of EJs Sachsman Valenti et al .
Men are 2 3 of EJs in 03 survey surprising result possibly survey error or artifact 3 4 of Ejs felt need for more training and education Most have some undergrad science training Other studies have shown correlation between.
accuracy and university level science education Newsroom cuts impact Massive cuts in most newsrooms2009 Boston Globe laid off entire science andenvironment unit WSJ layoffs many others .
often Ejs SWs are first to go Many publications folding or shifting to digital Seattle Post Intelligencer Rocky Mountain News Christian Science Monitor Many TV programs cut Weather Channel climate.
program CNN science and environment unit Canadian EJ Long tradition of great environmentalwriting in Canada Farley Mowatt fiction Gray Owl nature Fifth Estate s Denial.
Machine CBC Chris Turner s Geographyof Hope Andrew Nikiforuk s Tar Sands Since the economic meltdown quantity ofEJ greatly reduced and media havesupported paradoxical idea of consumer.
spending as improving economy Needed More outreach Not only will we have to re invent theeconomic model of journalism but wewill also have reinvent the.
conversation about journalism makingit less internal to the profession andmore interactive with the rest ofsociety Nicholas Lehman Columbia University School of.
Journalism May 2009 Increasing need for publicunderstanding of science Vannevar Bush Jacob Bronowski.
Two Cultures CP Snow Carl Sagan several examples Science democracy linkedThe democratic process and the.
applications of science areintimately intertwined forscience does not operate in avacuum Discussions on the airor at the corner store revolve.
about these two centralVannevar subjects which are always inBush 1949 the background They determineour destiny and well we know The world today is .
powered by science Toabdicate an interest inscience is to walk with eyesopen toward slavery If we are anything we must be a democracy of the.
intellect We must not perish by the distancebetween people and power by which Babylonand Egypt and Rome failed And that distancecan only be closed if knowledge sits in the homesand heads of people with no ambition to control.
others and not in isolated seats of power Jacob Bronowski 1956 and 1973 Intellectual life is increasinglybeing split into two polar groups literary intellectuals and scientists.
who can t talk to each other The gap should be closed for thesake of Western society livingprecariously rich among the poor and for the sake of the poor who.
needn t be poor if there isintelligence in the world The Two Cultures C P Snow 1959 many takes on Snow s two cultures idea many takes on Snow s two cultures idea .
I have a foreboding of a future serviceand information economy whenawesome technological powers are in thehands of a very few and no onerepresenting the public interest can even.
grasp the issues when the people havelost the ability to set their own agendas orknowledgeably question those inauthority The dumbing down of America is most evident in.
the slow decay of substantive content in theenormously influential media Carl Sagan The Demon Haunted World Random House 1995 What if Sagan could trainan environmental reporter .
Represent the public interest ask knowledgeable questions grasp the issues and understand therange of possibility and opinion without getting baffled by.
complexity Help set a public interest agenda Science literacy For every five hours of cable news less than a minute is devoted to.
The number of newspapers withweekly science sections has shrunkenby two thirds over the past several 46 percent of Americans denyevolution and think the Earth is less.
than 10 000 years old Scientific literacy Wind power uses more energy that it produces Typical comment at a Tazewell VApublic hearing on wind farm siting May 2009 Climate change is a hoax 700 000 hits on Google August 2009.
Sunlight isnt some magical free resource that we can just catch most of it is alreadybeing used to power the biosphere Take some away say by building massivesolar farms and you have just that much less biosphere trying and eventuallyfailing to support an ever increasing human population Blog comment August 2009.
T or F Creationism that is the idea that God created human beings pretty muchin their present form at one time within the last 10 000 years Definitely true 39 Probably true 27 66 Probably false 15 Definitely false 16 31 Ejs need science literacy.
CLAIM by the Tennessee Valley Authority US federal utility June 30 2009 Chattanooga Times PressCosts of electricity per megawatt hour 25 to 35 coal 20 nuclear energy.
5 to 8 hydro generation in dams 50 to 300 wind and solar energySource TVA Chief Operating Officer Bill McCollum When questioned TVA said The range of costs for renewables reflects the.
approximate range of responses TVA received for itsDecember 2008 request for proposals for renewableenergy The costs shown for coal nuclear andhydro are O M and where applicable fuel costs When TVA does look at options for generation for.
meeting future energy needs a comparison of theavailable choices is done using a levelized cost So by being uneducated and uncritical thenewspaper allowed TVA to unethically disadvantagerenewable energy .
At a time when society needs new energy sources and needs good information about costs andbenefits this is poor practice Scholarship in EJ SciCommSources Channels Audiences.
Quantitative analysis eg Opinion polling Content analysis Co orientation Qualitative analysis Frame analysis focus Also risk communication critical theory environmental history.
Basic issues for EJ What is the function role news media in formingscience and environmental policy libertarian socialresponsibility propaganda model etc How do journalists translate science for public .
Problem areas include complexity uncertainty conflicting claims political dimensions What is role of ideology advocacy in EJ When do emergency conditions supercedeprofessional commitments eg war reporting .
Basic issues for EJ Professionals have longbeen concerned with issue fatigue In other words how do we.
avoid THIS with apologies to R Crumb Content analysis David Weintraub USC MA thesis 20072007 survey 432 articles on climate using 9.
dimensions of risk established Slovic and frame analysis Gamson found Risk n a 45 severe 35 future 33 immediate 21 catastrophic 15 and nonhuman life 14 Frames political 44 consequences 22 and.
scientific 10 Sources government 38 scientist 27 nonprofit NGO 13 Audience analysis Erin Marlowe MA U of Missouri 2005 thesis.
Seeing Red in Green News politicalideology and partisanship are factors incredibility assessments and perceived bias inenvironmental news Articles written using moderate sources and.
suggestions of compromise were rated aslower in bias and higher in credibility thanarticles using confrontational language andsources with intense viewpoints more Audience analysis cont .
Erin Marlowe MA University of Missouri 2005 thesis Study supports hostile media phenomenon highly partisan individuals judge media tobe biased against their side and favorable totheir opponents .
Journalists can ensure wider acceptance of amessage by writing moderately and includingsuggestions of solutions to environmental Translating scienceProblem Climate change issue objectivity .
led to false balance elevation of non scientificideas about climate Max Boykoff Cronje Just the facts framing backfires Russill Borrow from health rhetoric Moyers Borrow from religious rhetoric.
Dunwoody Use weight of evidence Meyers Use precision journalism Framing strategies Science is dynamic A just the facts strategy canand often does backfire ultimately fueling public.
alienation from science When scientists inform the publicof facts the public is justifiably confused Studiessuggest that the public tends to regard normal scientificrefinement and self correction as equivocation orincompetence Instead of sweeping uncertainty under.
the rug science communicators should help the publicunderstand the logical and systematic procedures bywhich scientists confront it Ruth Cronje Nature March 18 2008 Framing strategiesBritish and American sources now seek to structure public.
understanding of climate change by issuing tipping point forewarnings of danger with increasing frequency Thisemerging trend announces a shift in the way we are likelyto perceive and respond to climate change dangers Thispaper reviews key statements to suggest a significant.
dimension of this trend is its enrollment ofepidemiological terminology to communicate urgent anduncertain threats Chris Russill U Minn Tipping Point forewarnings Env Comm 2 2 2008 Framing strategies risk comm.
1988 2006 2008Exposition Consequences Solutions Framing climate change as Noah s floodHow to reach fundamentalist Christians who doubt evolution How.
Environmental Journalism JOU 9742 FIMS UWO Bill Kovarik, PhD

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