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Everything You Need to, Know or Almost , about Integrating Quotations. into Your Literary Analysis, Professor Lisa Yanover. Napa Valley College, The main thing to keep in mind when integrating quotations is. that it takes thought and thoughtfulness or critical thinking . In order to integrate quotations effectively avoid dropped in quotations. also called floating quotations which is when quotations are dropped. in without any thought in terms of how they fit in the paragraph With. dropped in quotations there is nothing leading into or introducing the. quotation It is just there dropped in The most obvious sign of a. dropped in quotation is its appearance right after a sentence ending in a. period or at the end of a complete clause ending in a semicolon . Dropped in quotations have the potential to become even more serious. when the sources they come from are not correctly identified the result. is plagiarism , Effective integration begins with thoughtful selection of. quotations that support and deepen understanding of a point . Avoid quotations that merely restate the point which may lead the. writer to believe introducing them isn t necessary as the connection is. obvious Instead choose quotations that leave room for and even. necessitate the writer s interpretation and explanation of them . Effective placement of quotations is also important Because the. purpose of quotations is to support an idea or point of your own . quotations are most effective in research essays when placed in body. paragraphs which do the work of supporting the thesis Also keeping in. mind the three steps of a body paragraph , 1 Point or Main Idea of the paragraph . 2 Support to prove the point , 3 Explanation of the significance of the point in relation to the overall. argument thesis how it proves and develops that argument . we can see that quotations clearly belong in Step 2 as part of the. The next step is to weave the quotation into your paragraph and into. your argument As with paragraphs there are steps to follow when. working with quotations They are , 4 Signal phrase with correct punctuation a colon a comma or nothing. depending on what is correct , 5 Quotation, 6 In text citation. 7 Explanation, Some Definitions, A signal phrase is a phrase that. leads up to and prepares for the, quotation , Some signal phrases identify the. source its author title context, or background this type of signal. phrase is generally called an, attributive tag or attribution . There are a number of reasons one might want to use an attributive tag . For example , With primary sources the texts short stories novels poetry and plays . you re analyzing , It s essential to identify the author s of the text s you re analyzing . Often you accomplish this in the introduction so it s only necessary. as an occasional reminder or for emphasis especially when you re. analyzing his or her purpose as opposed to the text s Note Other. than the first time you introduce the author refer to him or her by his. or her last name only never by his or her first name only . With secondary sources criticism about the primary texts or that you ll. use to support your own analysis of them , You might identify the author you re quoting if he or she is well . known as an expert in his her field to add to your credibility by. showing you knew of this expert and that you knew enough to draw. upon his her expert knowledge Note Other than the first time you. introduce the author refer to him or her by his or her last name only. never by his or her first name only , You might identify the publication if it carries some prestige in the. field so that referring to it can likewise gain you credibility . You might want to distinguish the author s ideas and perspective. from your own if his or her ideas are controversial or not shared by. You might want to identify the context when where it was published . who wrote it etc if it adds to our understanding of the ideas you re. quoting from the source , But truly integrating quotations goes beyond. merely identifying the author or source it involves. thinking critically about the connection between, the quotation and your main idea That is what a. signal phrase does it creates a bridge between the. different parts of the paragraph and even between, the different parts of the support For example if the. quotation only suggests a connection to your point a. signal phrase before the quotation can prompt your. reader to notice what you want him her to in or about. the quotation and can also help focus your, interpretation and explanation of the quotation. afterwards thus prompting you to prove your point . Often signal phrases and attributive tags are used. in conjunction with each other , Formatting Quotations . Formatting quotations depends, first on the genre prose poetry . or drama and then on length, short or long Note Within short. quotations there are both partial, and complete quotations which. affect the punctuation before and, sometimes after quotations . Prose Quotations Short Partial, Ashort quotation is under 5 lines after being typed into your essay It is incorporated into your paragraph but. set off by quotation marks Short quotations can be partial or complete . Noteabout punctuation The parenthetical citation comes after the end quotation marks and is followed by. your sentence s end punctuation The only punctuation that would come inside the quotation marks is a. question mark or exclamation mark that is part of the original text not added by you and your. punctuation to end your sentence still follows the parenthetical citation . Apartial quotation is a word phrase or clause excerpted from the source that is incorporated into your own. sentence and syntax Your sentence completes or incorporates the quotation which in many cases would be a. fragment otherwise Punctuation before the quotation depends on what would be used in a sentence if the. quotation marks weren t there Your sentence can continue after the quotation and in some cases may need to . Already three of the boys have made a great pile of stones in one corner of the square Jackson 964 and the reader is allowed to. believe for the moment in the innocence of their purpose . The men stand at a distance surveying their own children speaking of planting and rain tractors and taxes Jackson 964 The word. surveying in particular suggests an attitude of physical and emotional distance as well as dominance or ownership . The setting lets us know immediately the importance of the lottery as it s held centrally in the square between the post office and the. bank Jackson 963 Both are significant social institutions around which the society s welfare and everyday life revolve . The stones gathered by the boys at the beginning foreshadow the ending and its cruelest moment when someone gave little Davy. Hutchinson a few pebbles Jackson 969 , In Text, Citations for Prose For primary texts the stories use the author s last name and the page number . Jackson 964 Note Do not use the word page or p or pg or any punctuation between the author s last. name and the page number If you re only writing about one story and you ve already identified the author you. can provide the page number only 964 , Prose Quotations Continued Short Complete. Acomplete quotation is a complete sentence or sentences that are introduced by. your complete sentence set off by a colon Notice that the first word of a complete. quotation begins with a capital letter Examples , Tessie Hutchinson in turn responds light heartedly with a joke Wouldn t have me leave m dishes. in the sink now would you Joe Jackson 965 By the end of the story the irony and horror of this. joke become apparent Tessie s final act to tidy her house is itself an act of politeness one which. she did readily without protest or questioning as if knowing she would not return and not wanting to. leave her house a mess , This illusion of normalcy of innocence is ultimately dispelled as we read at the end The children. had stones already and someone gave little Davy Hutchinson a few pebbles Jackson 969 The. deception Jackson has perpetrated on us is made all the more poignant because of our realization. that our foolishness stems not from what Jackson omitted the stones were there all along but. from what we have added to the story that is our own assumptions and desires what we wanted to. The women in contrast are made to seem inconsequential The women wearing faded house. dresses and sweaters came shortly after their menfolk They greeted one another and exchanged. bits of gossip as they went to join their husbands Jackson 964 The women are made to seem like. appendages to their husbands coming after them suggesting both subordination as well as. subjugation as if they are obeying an implicit command Similarly the women s talk is described. simply as gossip unlike the weightier matters of livelihood the men discuss . Note Some short quotations are complete and ALL long quotations are complete . Prose Quotations Continued Long, Along quotation is 5 lines or more after being typed into your essay Because it is. automatically a complete quotation a long quotation must be made up of a complete. sentence or several complete sentences and introduced with a complete sentence and set. off by a colon The long quotation is set off by blocking indenting only the left side 1 one. step more than a paragraph indent which is Quotation marks are not used Double . spacing with no extra spaces above or below the quotation is maintained throughout . Example Imagine it s double spaced , Noteabout punctuation With long quotations the end punctuation comes before the. parenthetical citation The end punctuation is typically a period unless the quotation itself. ends in a question or exclamation The parenthetical citation goes on the last line of the. quotation if it fits or on the next line indented like the rest of the quotation . The opening paragraph of The Lottery with its matter of fact description of the village sets this mood . The morning of June 27th was clear and sunny with the fresh warmth of a full summer day the flowers. were blossoming profusely and the grass was richly green The people of the village began to gather in. the square between the post office and the bank around ten o clock in some towns there were so. many people that the lottery took two days and had to be started on June 26th but in this village where. there were only about three hundred people the whole lottery took less than two hours so it could. begin at ten o clock in the morning and still be through in time to allow the villagers to get home for. noon dinner Jackson 963 , It s a pleasant day the weather cooperates as do the villagers who gather at the agreed upon time in the. agreed upon place , Poetry Quotations Short Partial. A short quotation is up to 3 lines as they appear in the poem So even if a line has only one word on it it. is still counted as a line Like short prose quotations short poetry quotations are marked by quotation. marks and are part of your paragraph The difference is that everything about the poem s content and. form or style must be duplicated exactly So in short poetry quotations you must identify line breaks with. a forward slash and stanza breaks with two If the poem capitalizes the first word of each line. regardless of whether it s a new sentence maintain this capitalization in your quotation even if it comes in. the middle of your sentence Conversely if a poem uses lowercase letters when in prose a capital letter. would typically be used use the lowercase As with short prose quotations short poetry quotations can. be partial or complete , Note about punctuation The parenthetical citation comes after the end quotation marks and is followed. by your sentence s end punctuation The only punctuation that would come inside the quotation marks is. a question mark or exclamation mark that is part of the original text not added by you and your. punctuation to end your sentence still follows the parenthetical citation . A partial quotation is a word phrase or clause excerpted from the source that is incorporated into your. own sentence and syntax Your sentence completes or incorporates the quotation which in many cases. would be a fragment otherwise Punctuation before the quotation depends on what would be used in a. sentence if the quotation marks weren t there Your sentence can continue after the quotation and in. some cases may need to Examples , The poem The Want Bone by Robert Pinsky is clearly not about human life its first image is not of a human tongue but the. tongue of the waves 1 , The speaker s sorrow that The dried mouthbones of a shark in the hot swale Gaped on nothing but sand on either side Pinsky 3 . 4 is apparent , William Carlos Williams poem The Red Wheelbarrow in fact depends on a red wheel barrow glazed with rain 3 5 to make. If the text is prose and comes all from the same page, the in-text citation is as usual (964). If the text starts on one page and ends on the next, use a hyphen (964-5). If the text starts on one page but skips the next page or pages, use a comma between the pages (964, 968) or (964, 968-9).