Faculty of Medicine  Introduction to Community  Medicine Course    (31505201)     Unit 3 Public Health/Environmental Health  Functions and Achievements of  public Health

Faculty Of Medicine Introduction To Community Medicine Course 31505201 Unit 3 Public Health Environmental Health Functions And Achievements Of Public Health-ppt Download

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1.Faculty of MedicineIntroduction to Community Medicine Course(31505201)Unit 3 Public Health/Environmental HealthFunctions and Achievements of public HealthByHatim JaberMD MPH JBCM PhD9-10-20161

2.Presentation outlineTimeIntroduction to Unit 3 Public Health12:00 to 12:10Public Health definition, dimension andcomponents.Achievements of Public HealthPublic Health ApproachEnvironmental Health : Concepts andDefinitions12:10 to 12:2012:20 to 12:3012:30 to 12:502

3.Introduction to Unit 3Public Health and Environment5 lectures• Introduction to Public Health and Environment-9-10-2016• Environment 1- Air pollution—11-10-2016• Environment 2- Water Quality and Food Safety 13-10-2016 ??????????????• Environment 3 -Waste Management --16-10-2016• Occupational Health 4 – 18-10-20163

4.Public health• The WHO has defined it as “The science and art of preventingdisease, prolonging life, and promoting health throughorganized community efforts”• Public health is a combination of scientific disciplines (e.g.,epidemiology, biostatistics, laboratory science, social science,demography) and skills and strategies (e.g., epidemiologicalinvestigations, planning and management, intervention,evaluation) that are directed to the maintenance andimprovement of the health of people.• Public health is both a body of knowledge and also means toapply that knowledge4

5.Health is……a dynamic state of completephysical, mental, spiritual, andsocial well-being and not merelythe absence of disease orinfirmity.*and…Public health is “What wesocietyas ado collectivelyto assure the conditions in whichpeople can be healthy.”**Public health is thus a social institution,a discipline, and a practice



8.What doesmedicine do?Saves lives one at a timeWhat doespublic health do?Saves lives millions at a timeBoth of these disciplines are based on science, however, please note:Public health touches EVERY individual, EVERY day.Addressing the cause of death and emergencies cannot be done one person at a time.Population-based public health means strategy is needed.It is important to understand the difference between medicine and public healthbecause whilemedicine saves one life at a time, public healthsaves millions of lives at a time.

9.What is Public Health?• The sum of allgovernmentalpromote, protect,the people’sofficial orefforts toand preservehealth.9

10.Who is Responsible for the Public’s Health?• Government agencies– federal,– state and– local• Non-governmental agencies, such as nonprofit organizations.10

11.Three Core Functions of Public Health Assessment What are the health problems of a population orindividual? Policy Development Collectively deciding which actions or interventionsare most appropriate for the problems identified. Assurance The necessary interventions will be put into place,assuring conditions in which people can be healthy.11


13.Public Health AccomplishmentsAchievements1. Vaccination2. Motor-vehicle safety3. Safer workplaces4. Control of infectious diseases5. Decline in deaths from coronary heart disease andstroke6. Safer and healthier foods7. Healthier mothers and babies8. Family planning9. Fluoridation of drinking water10. Recognition of tobacco use as a health hazard13

14.Public Health Approach• Define the health problem.• Identify risk factors associated with the problem.• Develop and test community-level interventionsto control or prevent the cause or the problem.• Implement interventions to improve the health ofthe population.• Monitor those interventions to assess theireffectiveness14

15.PublicHealthApproachImplementation:How do youdo it?InterventionEvaluation:Whatworks?Risk FactorIdentification:What is thecause?Surveillance:Whatis theproblem?ProblemResponse15

16.A Sampling of Public HealthProfessions••••••••••••Alcohol, tobacco and otherdrugsChiropractic health careCommunity health planningand policy developmentEnvironmentEpidemiologyFood and nutritionGerontological healthHealth administrationHIV AIDSInjury Control and EmergencyHealth ServicesInternational HealthMaternal and Child Health••••••••••Medical CareMental HealthOccupational Health andSafetyOral HealthPodiatric HealthPopulation, FamilyPlanning & ReproductiveHealthPublic Health Educationand Health PromotionPublic Health NursingSchool Health Educationand ServicesSocial Work16

17.Environmental Health: Concepts andDefinitions17

18.What is environment?Environment is defined as“the surroundings in which an organization operates including air,water, land and natural resources, flora, fauna, humans and theirinter relations” – ISO Definition.Webster's Dictionary defines the environment as,"The circumstances, objects, conditions by which one is surrounded,the complex of physical, chemical and biotic factors, that act upon anorganism, or an ecological community and determine its form andsurvival, the aggregate of social, cultural factors that influence thelife of an individual or community."18

19.ENVIRONMENTAll that which is external to man is the environment broadly speaking.The concept of environment is complex.The external environment or the Macro-environment is said to be responsible for millions of preventablediseases originating in it.Micro-environment is the Domestic environment in which man lives.The term Internal environment is some time used for the environment inside the bodyEXTERNAL ENVIRONMENT:“All that is external to the individual human host,living and non-living, and with which he is in constantinteraction”.19

20.ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTEnvironment(Physical, biological and psychosocial)Human activitieshealth of individual20


22.Health and EnvironmentPerspective of RelationsEnvironmental healthPublic HealthOccupational HealthFamily HealthPersonalHealth22

23.Environmental Health?AirFoodSunlightNoiseWaterSoilThe study of how the environmentaffects your health.23

24.Health and environmental relationship1- Environmental conditions help to determinepeoples health and how long they will live. - Theycan affect reproductive health and choices relatedto number of children.2- They can help determine prospect of socialcohesion and economic growth, with further effectson health.3-Changes in the environment i.e. Pollution anddegradation, climate change, extremes of weatheralso change the prospects for health anddevelopment.24

25.Health and environmental relationship4- Environmental condition contribute significantly to communicable diseases,which account for about 20 – 25 % of deaths annually world wide.5- Unclean water and associated poor sanitation kill over 12 million people eachyear.6- Air pollution kills nearly 3 million or more.7- Change in land use can create new breeding grounds of vectors,Schistosomiasis in Sudan and Egypt25

26.Health and environmental relationship8- The cleaning of the tropical forest creates hardpan onwhich rainwater can collect and mosquito can breed.Malaria results over 1 million death each year andaccounts 300 million new clinical cases each year.Malaria causes 10 % of the death in sub – Sahara Africa.9- It has been estimated that roughly- 60% of the global burden of disease from acuterespiratory infections.- 90% from diarrhoeal disease,- 50% from chronic respiratory condition and- 90% from malaria could be avoided by simpleenvironmental intervention.26

27.HazardsBacteria &virusesHarmfulchemicalsTobaccosmokeStressLoud noisesA hazard is anything in the environmentthat can hurt you or make you sick.27

28.I- Biological hazardsThese are living organisms or their products that areharmful to humansA. Water-borne diseases are diseases that are transmitted in drinking water1. Examples are polio virus, hepatitis A virus, Salmonella, Shigella, cholera, amoebicdysentery, Giardia, and Cryptosporidium.2. These disease organisms are shed into the water in feces, and can produce illnessin those who consume untreated, contaminated water.3. Our municipal water treatment facilities are usually able to purify water by removingthese agents or killing them by disinfecting the water.28

29.B. Food-borne diseasesare diseases transmitted in or on food1. Examples of food-borne agents are the bacteria Salmonella,serotype enteritidis, Escherichia coli, as well as other agents.2. To protect against food-borne diseases, sanitarians from localhealth departments routinely inspect food service establishments(restaurants) and retail food outlets (supermarkets) to verify thatfood is being stored and handled properly.29

30.C. Vector-borne diseasesare those transmitted by insects or other arthropods1. Examples are St. Louis encephalitis and La Crosseencephalitis transmitted by mosquitoes and plague and murinetyphus transmitted by fleas.2. Improper environmental management can cause vector-bornedisease outbreaks.30

31.II. Chemical hazardsresult from mismanagement or misuse of chemicals resulting in anunacceptable risk to human healthA. Pesticides are chemicalsthat have been manufactured for the purpose of reducing populationsof undesirable organisms (pests)1. Examples of categories of pesticides are herbicides and insecticides.2. Most pesticides kill non-target organisms as well as the target, or pestspecies.3. The wise use of pesticides can protect human health and agriculturalcrops.31

32.II. Chemical hazardsB. Environmental tobacco smoke (ETS)is an environmental hazard produced by millions that smoke1. Diseases associated with ETS include lung cancer and perhaps heart disease.2. ETS contains 4, 000 substances.3. The EPA has classified ETS as a Class A carcinogen.4. Smoking has been increasingly restricted from public buildings and from manyprivate work sites.5. Regulation of smoking seems to be the best approach to controlling thispollutant32

33.II. Chemical hazardsC. Leadis a naturally occurring element that is used in the manufacturing of manyindustrial and domestic products1. Health problems associated with the over exposure to lead are anemia, birthdefects, bone damage, neurological damage, kidney damage,and others2. Exposure is by ingestion and inhalation.3. Children are particularly at risk from eating peeling lead paint.4. The prevalence of very high blood lead levels among young children declinedsignificantly between 1984 and 1994 primarily because the removal of leadfrom gasoline.5. Occupational exposure is a major source of lead intake for adults.33

34.III. Physical hazardsinclude airborne particles, humidity, equipmentdesign and radiationA. Radon contamination results from overexposure to radon gas.1. Radon gas arises naturally from the earth andsometimes occurs at dangerous levels inbuildings and homes.2. Breathing in radon gas can cause lung cancer.3. Homes can be tested for the presence of radongas for 20.34

35.IV. Psychological hazardsare environmental factors that produce psychological changes expressed as stress, depression, hysteria.V. Sociological hazardsare those that result from living in a society where oneexperiences noise, lack of privacy and overcrowding.Population growth may be a sociological hazard.35

36.Site and Location HazardsNatural disasters are geographical andmeteorological events of such magnitudeand proximity to communities that theyproduce significant damage and injuries.1. Examples are cyclones, earthquakes, floods,hurricanes, tornadoes, typhoons, and volcaniceruptions.2. The magnitude of devastation of these eventscan sometimes be great.3. Biological, psychological and sociologicalhazards may increase following a natural disaster.36

37.Route #1: InhalationHazard!Inhalation:Inhalation:Breathing.Breathing. WhenWhenchemicalschemicals enter thebodybody throughthrough thisthis routerouteofof exposure,exposure, theythey cangetget stuck in thethe lungslungsand/orand/or bebe takentaken upup intointothethe bloodstream.bloodstream.37

38.Route #2: IngestionHazard!Ingestion:Ingestion:SwallowingSwallowing (usually(usually byeatingeating oror drinking).drinking).WhenWhen chemicals enterthethe bodybody through thisthisrouteroute of exposure, theycancan easily be taken upintointo thethe bloodstream.

39.Route #3: Dermal AbsorptionHazard!DermalDermal Absorption:Absorption:AbsorbingAbsorbing a chemicalchemical throughthrough anyany partpart ofof thethe skin,skin, including theeyes.eyes. WhenWhen chemicalschemicals comecome inin contactcontact withwith thethe skin,skin, theythey cancansometimessometimes enterenter thethe bloodstream through this route of exposure.


41.Natural Environment•HydrosphereThe hydrosphere represents one component of earth'ssystem, operating in conjunction with the solid crust(lithosphere) and the air that envelopes the planet(atmosphere).According to the research, hydrosphere basicallya combined mass of water that is found on earth, thatmakes up around 71% of the earth surface which iscovered with water.AtmosphereIts major components are Nitrogen (78%), Oxygen( 20.96% ), Argon ( 0.93% ), Carbon-dioxide ( 0.032% ),and other inert gases.The atmosphere filters the incoming ultra-violet (UV)radiation and protects the earth’s surface.Troposphere, Stratosphere, Mesosphere, Thermosphereare the four types of atmosphere.41

42.The four types ofAtmosphere• Troposphere: 8-18 km, close toearth surface• Stratosphere: up to 50km,OZONE- absorbs harmful ultravioletradiation from sun• Mesosphere: 50 km• Thermosphere andExosphere upperatmosphere42

43.Natural Environment• LithosphereThe earth's crust consists of rocks and soils made up ofdifferent chemical elements and minerals.The lithosphere occupies 30% of the total Earth’s surface.The lithosphere is about 100 km thick, although itsthickness is age dependent (older lithosphere is thicker).AnthrosphereThe anthroposphere (sometimes also referred astechnosphere) is that part of the environment that ismade or modified by humans for use in human activitiesand human habitats. It is one of the Earth's spheres.As human technology becomes m

Public health is a combination of scientific disciplines (e.g., epidemiology, biostatistics, laboratory science, social science, demography) and skills and strategies (e.g., epidemiological investigations, planning and management, intervention, evaluation) that are directed to the maintenance and improvement of the health of people.

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