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Focus on LiteraryForm Drama Soul of the Age The applause delight the wonder of our stage Ben Johnson To the Memory of My.Beloved Master William Shakespeare andWhat He Hath Left Us Background DramaticRenaissance playwrights weregreatly influenced by.Humanism looking not only tothe Bible but also to Latin andGreek Scholarship for wisdomand knowledge The Great Theme. All of Shakespeare s plays like most drama areabout one great general theme disorder What is the order in this society How is that order violated How do the characters respond to the loss of.traditional order How is order restored Is the new order at the end of the play somethinghealthy or is it shot through with ironic resonance Defining Drama.A story written to be performed bySophisticated classical dramasoriginated in Greek religiousceremonies honoring Dionysus godof wine new life illusion fertility . Classical DramaticStructure Comedy Always involves conflict Opening scene conveys a sense of anormal society. A society which is held together byshared rules Large group scene as symbol of social Something unusual and oftenunexpected happens to upset the. Creates confusion and conflict Source of humor OR political personal andpsychological torment Aristotle s Definition of Tragedy then is an imitation of an.action that is serious complete andof a certain magnitude in languageembellished with each kind of artisticornament the several kinds beingfound in separate parts of the play in.the form of action not of narrative through pity and fear effecting theproper purgation of these emotions Aristotle The Poetics Part VI Aristotle s Definition of. Tragedy then is an imitation of anaction that is serious complete andof a certain magnitude in languageembellished with each kind of artisticornament the several kinds being.found in separate parts of the play inthe form of action not of narrative through pity and fear effecting theproper purgation of these emotions Aristotle The Poetics Part VI. Imitation from Greek mimesis ormimeisthai which means toThe attempt to capture theessence of reality in artificial. Aristotle s Definition of Tragedy then is an imitation of anaction that is serious complete andof a certain magnitude in languageembellished with each kind of artistic.ornament the several kinds beingfound in separate parts of the play inthe form of action not of narrative through pity and fear effecting theproper purgation of these emotions . Aristotle The Poetics Part VI from Greek eleos whichmeans pity or mercy The feeling of pain oneexperiences when watching.another suffer Aristotle s Definition of Tragedy then is an imitation of anaction that is serious complete andof a certain magnitude in language.embellished with each kind of artisticornament the several kinds beingfound in separate parts of the play inthe form of action not of narrative through pity and fear effecting the.proper purgation of these emotions Aristotle The Poetics Part VI from Greek phobos whichmeans fear panic or flight The sense of panic or loss of.self in terror Aristotle s Definition of Tragedy then is an imitation of anaction that is serious complete andof a certain magnitude in language.embellished with each kind of artisticornament the several kinds beingfound in separate parts of the play inthe form of action not of narrative through pity and fear effecting the.proper purgation of these emotions Aristotle The Poetics Part VI Purgation from Greek katharsis which means purging cleansing .purificationRemoving impurities as when metal is purified to removetrace elements so that only one material remains Tragedy purifies pity and fear so that we feel only those twoCleansing as when something harmful is forcefully removed .Tragedy purges harmful emotions like pity and fear from thedistillationThe purification or concentration of a substance as when alcohol isdistilled to make it stronger Tragedy distills and purifies pity and fear so that they become.even more intense for the audience Depicts the downfall of a basically good personthrough some fatal error or misjudgment producing suffering and insight on the part of theprotagonist and arousing pity and fear on the part.of the audience Key Elements of a tragic hero An outstanding person of high rank whose downfall is caused byhis own flawed behavior . tragic flaw Part of the hero s character that leads him to make a fatal catharsis A cleansing through the emotions pity fear awe generated by catastrophe. An unhappy ending featuring the destruction of the hero Tragic Endings The ending of a tragedy looking back over what has resolution of conflict occurs only with the death of the main character.who usually discovers just before his death that hebrought about his own demise the final series of events 1 Hero dies 2 Group laments over the body of fallen hero .reflects upon the significance of his lifeDepiction of ordinary people in conflict with society Conflicts are always happily resolved and typicallyarise from misunderstandings deceptions disapproving authority figures and mistaken.identities Emphasis is on human foibles weaknesses ofArouses sympathy amusement Types of Comedies Plots full of wild coincidences full of zaniness slapstick humor .and hilarious improbability and seemingly endless twists andcomplications i e deception disguise and mistaken identity Romantic Comedy Love plot featuring 2 lovers who tend to be young likeable andapparently meant for each other but are kept apart by some.complicating circumstance until surmounting all obstacles theyare finally wed Satiric Comedy Exploration of human vice folly through plots that trace therising fortune of a central character who is likely to be cynical . Comic Endings The ending of a comedy looking forward to a joyful future resolution of Confusion Occurs when everyone recognizes what has been going on learns from it forgives forgets and re established his or her identity in the smoothly functioning social. final events Typically ends with a group celebration especially one associated with a betrothalor wedding often accompanied by music and dancing The emphasis is on the reintegration of everyone into the group a recommitmentto their shared life together . All sources of anti social discord have reformed their ways been punished or isbanished from the celebration Reading Shakespeare The play s the thing Hamlet Act II Scene ii. Follow the 3C sHow can you tell what kind of Shakespeareplay you re reading watching Just follow the 3 C s Count the Couples Corpses and Crowns at.the end and you know what your play is Histories somebody s named King Comedies everybody gets married Tragedies everybody dies The History Plays.Factually based with dramaticliberties Keeping the monarch QueenElizabeth happy and consequently staying out of jail means ignoring.potentially great dramatic material Showing the messydivorces and deaths ofHenry VIII s six wivesmight have sold a lot of.tickets but at what cost The History PlaysSynopsis of all the Historyplays they re all pretty muchthe same .An English king usuallynamed Henry sometimesRichard and once John isfighting the French At thesame time someone at home. The ComediesConstructing a Shakespeareancomedy is like ordering from aChinese restaurant Chooseone item from Column A. setting two items fromColumn B characters fiveitems from Column C unnecessarily complicatedplot points then select a title. Make Your OwnShakespearean Comedy Setting Characters Plot TitleVerona Long lost Shipwreck Love As You Like ItVenice identical twins Mistaken Measure for.Arden Parents who identity Gentlemandon t understand Unrequited The Comedy ofDimwitted lower love Nothingclass character Arranged Twelfth NightGirl disguised as marriages Dream.Athens boy A pound of A Midsummer sDenmark Cuckolded flesh WinterSyracuse husband Magical The Taming of theSchenect Nondescript potions Comedyady young lovers Pretending Much Ado About.Half human half to be dead Endsbeast Drunkennes Troilus andA quarrelsome s Cymbeline The TragediesIn Shakespeare s tragedies you.know going in that the titlecharacter is going to die by theend of Act V Knowing the ending does not diminishthe experience It s like the movie Titanic .You knew from the title that the ship wasgoing down but you still enjoyedwatching Leonardo DiCaprio freeze todeath From Reduced Shakespeare Freytag s Pyramid.Structure of a 5 Act Tragedy What all Shakespearean Scholars Know Hints and Tips for ReadingShakespeare Shakespeare s.Language changes all the time Theway people spoke 400 years ago wasdifferent from the way we speak now When reading Shakespeare remember that his words were.intended to be performed The first rule of learning how to readShakespeare is you must read it outThe second rule is that you must readit more than once . Characteristics ofShakespeare s EnglishForms of do Forms of do were not necessary in formingquestions or making imperative statement or.their negatives How long within this wood intend you stay How long do you intend to stay in this wood Using do was reserved for its emphatic use I love you not I do not love you .What said she What did she say I think not of them I do not think of them Slept she here Did she sleep here Characteristics ofShakespeare s English.Negatives were often compounded foremphasis Today we would classifythe following as double negatives and consider them improper Which never shook hands nor bade.farewell to him Nor will you not tell me who you No nor I neither Characteristics ofShakespeare s English.The pronouns thee thou and thy are seldom if ever usedtoday They are occasionally employed to suggest elevatedlanguage or a style of classical English DuringShakespeare s day these words were commonplace andfollowed a more or less specific structure .Thee and thou rather than you were used as objects of averb or preposition God give thee joy You OR thee thou were used as subjects with only subtledistinctions if any .Would st thou have me Thou hath killed my child If you would not it were a good sign Likewise with your and thy as possessive pronouns I do not fear your favours or your hate .So well thy words become thee as thy wounds Shakespeare sFrom Will to JillThe apparel oft proclaims the man It s gotta be the shoes .There is small choice in rotten apples Beggars can t be choosers Now I am in a holiday humor Party on Suit the action to the word the word to the action .Just do it An honest tale speeds best being plainly told To make a long story short What s gone and what s past help should be past grief Don t cry over spilled milk .And thereby hangs a tail That s all Folks Shakespeare s LanguageMany of Shakespeare s idioms or words phraseshave become part of the English language .That boy is always hungry He ll eat us out ofhouse and home He hath eaten me out of house and home Henry IV Part 2 II i 75 6 There s a method in my madness . Though this be madness yet there is methodin t Hamlet II ii 99The world is your oyster Why then the world s mine oyster TheMerry Wives of Windsor II ii 4 5. Line ReferencesPlays are divided into sections calledacts and scenes The following linereference is typically utilized whenquoting a Shakespearean play .Macbeth II i 35The play s title is written in italics The act is written in capital Roman numerals The scene is in small Roman numerals The line number is written as a normal. Reading Shakespeare forcomprehensionDue to the nature of the theater Shakespeare hadto create atmosphere and setting though language He used words to paint scenery and language to.achieve lighting effects People went to hear aplay not see it Now I am in a holiday humor. Party on . . . Suit the action to the word, the word to the action. Just do it. An honest tale speeds best being plainly told. To make a long story short . . . Whatâ€™s gone and whatâ€™s past help should be past grief. Donâ€™t cry over spilled milk. And thereby hangs a tail. Thatâ€™s all, Folks!