Food quality - Unit 1&2 Food & Technology

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Food Technology A fruit is the edible part of a plant thatcontains a seed or the matured ovary of a Fruitsare defined botanically as the.
matured ovaries of flowers Structure Fruitshave 3 sections the skin theflesh and the seeds Fruit comes in a wide variety of colours textures and.
flavours and are generally sweet in taste Colour due to various pigments Green is due to chlorophyll Orange Yellow are due to carotenoids Red Blue due to anthocyanins.
The Process of photosynthesisThe green pigment in plants called chlorophyll uses carbondioxide in the atmosphere energy from sunlight and water.
to produce carbohydrates forenergy for growth Thecarbohydrate is stored in thefruits we eat This is a complex polysaccharide found in the cell.
walls of many fruits It forms a gel with sugar in acid conditions and isresponsible for the setting of jams It can bepurchased commercially as Jamsetta or in Jamsetting sugar .
Find images of jam Jamsetta jam setting sugar Different flavours in fruits are due to complex mixtures of naturally occurringchemicals They range from the subtle slightly perfumed flavour of a mango to thestrong citrus flavour of a lemon .
The acids each fruit contains determines the flavour Citric acid oranges lemons grapefruit limes Malic acid apples pears peaches apricots Oxalic acid pineapples Tartaric acid grapes.
Sweetness is due to the sugars fruits contain Fruit sugar is calledfructose and is a simple carbohydrate so provides quick short bursts of Texture formed from a combination of different properties the plant cellshape and size the amount of water in the fruit cells and the amount ofcellulose fibre and starch in the cells .
Nutrient content of fruit Fresh fruit is manly composed of water and carbohydrates Many are low in kilojoules The carbohydrate in ripe fruits is in the form of sugar such assucrose fructose glucose.
Some carbohydrate is also present in the form of cellulose a polysaccharide This is not easily digested and formsdietary fibre Fruit is a valuable source of vitamins and the main source of Vitamin A in the form of carotene is present in yellow and.
orange fruits Some fruits contain small amounts of minerals such asphosphorus potassium and calcium When fruits ripen Pigments underneath and in the skin of fruit break.
down causing a colour change An example iswhere apples change colour The edible pulp surrounding the seed becomes softand tender as the water content increases The starch present converts to sugar causing the.
flavour to become sweeterA fuller and more distinctive aroma develops on Classification of fruitsFruits are grouped together in families according to how they grow the physical properties of the fruit POME FRUIT.
Examples Apple pear quince PROPERTIES Physical compartmented core that contains seeds Coresurrounded by crisp juicy flesh Have an indentation in the coreend of the fruit .
Chemical Acids present citric and malic Apples are a good source of fibre vitamin C Sensory Apples firm crisp texture sweet flavourPears soft tender flesh sweet flavour Storage store apples in the refrigerator to keep them crisp Keep.
them away from green vegetables which are sensitive to a naturalgas ethylene given off by the apples Classification of fruitsCITRUS FRUITSExamples oranges grapefruit lemons cumquats limes mandarins.
PROPERTIESPhysical Firm thick lightly dimpled skin present in most varieties Coloursrange from green limes to orange mandarin orange and yellow grapefruit lemon Internally made up of juicy flesh that separates into membrane coveredChemical good source of vitamins particularly Vit C as well as minerals .
dietary fibre Citric acid present Sensory flavour can range from acidic to tangy and reasonably sweet depending on type of fruit Storage Store at room temperature for about 5 days when the weather is cool tomild but best to refrigerate in hot weather for extended storage time .
Classification of fruitsExamples strawberries raspberries loganberries blackberriesPROPERTIESPhysical Some eg raspberries are clusters of a number of small fruits eachtiny segment is a dupe or juice filled sac With strawberries what appear to be.
seeds on the surface are actually individual fruits achenes containing a singleseed Blueberries and cranberries are single fruits formed from the plant sChemical Berries are good sources of Vitamin C potassium iron and fibre Sensory Most have firm flesh and a sweet to slightly tart taste Their flavouris best when served at room temperature .
Storage Store in the refrigerator but wash them just before eating Classification of fruitsVINE FRUITSExamples Grapes passionfruit kiwi fruitPROPERTIES GRAPES.
Physical small oval shaped fruit most containing a seed Colour ranges from green topale yellow and purple Chemical Provide fibre Vitamin C sugar potassium iron Sensory sweet flavour Texture is smooth often crisp outer skin smooth inside Storage need to be stored in the refrigerator.
PROPERTIES PASSIONFRUITPhysical round or oval in shape outer skin is leathery purple brownish colour andwrinkles when fruit is completely ripe Inside contains translucent orange pulp and smallblack seeds Chemical contains Vitamins A C also a good source of fibre.
Sensory fragrant aroma sour sweet flavourStorage store at room temperature Classification of fruitsSTONE FRUIT Examples peaches nectarines apricots cherries plums.
PROPERTIESPhysical round shaped fruit size varies depending on type All have juicy soft flesh surrounding a stone that contains a seed Some such as cherries nectarines plums have smooth skin while peaches and apricots have a downy velvety skin Colours range from red or blue to yellow or orange.
depending on type Chemical yellow types rich in Vitamin A and often C eg apricots Sensory juicy flesh is generally sweet plums are more acidic in flavour Flavour is best when served at room temperature Storage place in the refrigerator for three to five days .
Classification of fruitsExamples cantaloupe honeydew watermelonPROPERTIESPhysical oval or ball shaped all have a firm outer shell Flesh comes in arange of colours depending on the type Watermelon has a bright pink flesh with.
medium black oval shaped seeds scattered throughout unless a seedlessvariety cantaloupe has many small pale coloured contained in the centresurrounded by the orange flesh Chemical cantaloupe are a good source of vitamin A watermelon is low inkilojoules and an excellent source of Vitamin C.
Sensory Flesh of most are firm and juicy Sweet flavour Subtle sweet aroma Storage Can store at room temperature for several days Securely cover cantaloupe if placed in the fridge so the aroma doesn tcontaminate other foods Classification of fruits.
TROPICAL FRUITSExamples bananas pineapples mangoes PROPERTIESPhysical vary greatly in shape size colour Chemical Bananas high starch content before they are ripe after ripening.
they are high sugar content They are also a good source of potassium mangoes rich in vitamins particularly A CSensory most are aromatic mangoes have a soft almost buttery texture Sweet flavour and a distinctive perfume Storage bananas best stored at room temperature Pineapple are best eaten.
soon after purchase and covered if they are put in the fridge due to their strong Selecting Fruit Select fruit that is in season It will be likely to be fresher cheaper have the best flavour andhave better nutrition content .
Chose fruit that is plump and quite heavy for its Avoid fruit that is damaged bruised or wrinkled Buy only the quantity you will use within a fewdays as overripe fruit deteriorates very quickly If you are buying fruit in punnets check the.
condition of the ones at the bottom Buy the best quality fruit you can afford Storage of Fruit Store fruit in a cool dry area withadequate ventilation.
Refrigerator crisper is ideal Fruit will not continue to ripen in fridge Thereforemake sure it is ripe when you put it in the fridge Berries will deteriorate quickly Purchase justbefore use .
Banana skins may discolour but the flesh insidewill be consumable Functional properties of fruit Colour fruit adds contrast to dishes and when used as a garnishdue to the variety of colours available .
Gelling properties many fruits such as apples quinces citrusfruits have a high pectin content which forms a gel when in thepresence of sugar and acid Texture fruits provide a variety of textures depending on thefruits used This adds contrast to dishes like fruit salad .
Filling fruits add bulk to the fillings of pies such as apple apricotor berries Flavour sweetener Apple is often combined with tart fruits togive sweetness or to fruit juice It can also be used to replace canesugar in recipes like muffins .
Variety because fruits come in a variety of flavours textures andcolours they add variety and interest to dishes and menus When fruits are cooked During cooking the cell walls of the fruit become tender as water passesthrough the cell membranes causing the cell walls to swell and burst As a.
result the fruit loses its shape and the pulp becomes softIf sugar is added when cooking it strengthens the structure of the fruit andhelps to retain the shape Applying heat causes some pigment changes and some loss of colour occursChanges in flavour occur as the naturally occurring sugars in the fruit begin.
to caramelise The nutrient content is affected for instance vitamin C is lost due to itssensitivity to heat and exposure to oxygen Origin plant or animal Structure images as well are really useful .
ClassificationConsideration s in food selection including food quality and ethicalissues such as fair trade and intensive farming practicesPhysical propertiesChemical properties.
Sensory propertiesFunctional properties and their role in food preparation andprocessingChanges in the physical and sensory properties during preparationand processing.
Consideration s in food selection, including food quality and ethical issues such as fair trade and intensive farming practices. Physical properties. Chemical properties. Sensory properties. Functional properties and their role in food preparation and processing. Changes in the physical and sensory properties during preparation and processing

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