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Forensic ToxicologyThe study and practice of the applicationof toxicology to the purposes of the lawBegan in 19th CenturyEnvironmental air water soil.Consumer foods cosmetics drugsMedical clinical forensic Poison What is it Any substance that causesinjury illness or death.especially by chemical All Things are poison andnothing is without poison onlythe dose makes that a thing isno poison .Paracelsus 1493 1541 Earliest Record of Poison 339 BC Socrates execution extract ofhemlock plant related to the carrot Contains an alkaloid similar to nicotine.effects the nervous system Using poisons became an art like to useones with no trace because it looked as ifpeople died from natural causes Where Toxicology occurs.Postmortem medical examiner or coronerCriminal motor vehicle accidents MVA Workplace drug testingSports human and animalEnvironment industrial catastrophic terrorism. Post Mortem Forensic Tox Determines the absence or presence ofdrugs their metabolites Chemicals such as ethanol and othervolatile substances CO and other gases .metals other toxic chemicals in humanfluids tissues evaluates their role asa determinant or contributory factor in thecause manner of death Historical Perspective of Poisoners.Locusta personal poisoner of Emperor NeroLucretia Borgia father was Pope Alexander VIShe used a ring with poison She killed her loversand her fathers political enemies Madame Giulia Toffana .responsible for over 600successful poisonings including two popes She soldthe Toffana Water to womenwho wanted to kill their.husbands lead arsenic belladona 1600 s Hieronyma Spara formed a society to teachwomen how to murder their.husbands arsenic To aid women to inherit money 1600 s Father of ToxicologyMathieu Orfila .father of forensic toxicologypublished in 1814 Trait deswhich described the firstsystematic approach to the studyof the chemistry and.physiological nature of poisons Aspects of Toxicity Dosage The chemical or physical form of the The mode of entry into the body. Body weight and physiologicalconditions of the victim including age The time period of exposure The presence of other chemicals in thebody or in the dose. Lethal DoseLD50 refers to the dose of a substancethat kills half the test population usually within four hoursExpressed in milligrams of substance per.kilogram of body weight Toxicity ClassificationLD50 rat oral Correlation to ToxicityIngestion by 150 lbAdult Human. 1 mg kg a taste to a drop extreme1 50 mg kg to a teaspoon high50 500 mg kg to an ounce moderate500 5 000 mg kg to a pint slight5 15 g kg to a quart practically nontoxic.Over 15 g kg more than 1 quart relatively harmless Symptoms of PoisoningSymptom EvidenceType of PoisonCarbon monoxide Red or pink patches on the chest .thigh unusually bright red lividitySulfuric acid Black vomitHydrochloric acid Greenish brown vomitNitric acid Yellow vomitPhosphorus Coffee brown vomit onion or garlic odor.Burnt almond odor slow breathingArsenic Extreme diarrhea Nausea and vomiting unconsciousness possibly blindnessmercury Impaired speech lose of vision pinsand needles feelings. Lead Poisoning Lead not highly poisonous chronicexposure can cause health risks more inchildren than adults More than 400 000 children under 6.have higher than normal blood levels oflead which can lead to brain damage memory loss and decrease criticalthinking skills Where is Lead found . Most common Lead based Paints Lead is sweet children would teethed onwindowsills 1992 passed a law houses had to disclose ifthey used lead based paint. Lead gasoline still remains in soil Lead pipes if water is acidic lead can beleached from metal Lead crystal should not be used to storeacidic foods or drinks. What can it do to your body Lead poisoning can cause Brain damage Affecting memory thought processes.Post-Mortem Forensic Tox. Determines the absence or presence of drugs & their metabolites. Chemicals such as ethanol and other volatile substances, CO and other gases, metals & other toxic chemicals in human fluids & tissues & evaluates . their role. as a determinant or contributory factor in the . cause & manner of death.