Formal Syntax and Language Change

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The Copula Cycle Features and Principles ofProjectionElly van Gelderen17 June 2015.
University of GreenwichA little on generative historical syntax ambiguity reanalysis features are crucialEnglish copulas renewal reanalysisExamples of Grammaticalization and.
Linguistic Cycles features structureThe Demonstrative to Copula CycleExplanations and some challenges Principles of Projection Model of language acquisition change.
based on Andersen 1973 Generation n Generation n 1experience experience nI language n I language n 1E language n E language n 1.
innovations Internal Grammar Reanalysis is crucialLoss of manner retention of Q features Grammaticalization.
Grammaticalization is a unidirectionalloss change from semantic to formal grammatical features For instance a demonstrative with semanticfeatures such as a distal with location .
distance entity can be reanalyzed ashaving only the grammatical features deictic third and then be a copula orarticle The flavor of the copula can be permanence id loc realis.
Greenberg s Demonstrative Cycleand additionsDemonstrative i phi loc article Dem C copula.
u phi i phi u i T u phi loc loc id Diessel 1999 gives 17 grammaticalization Grammaticalization tells uswhich features matter.
Subject and Object Agreement Giv n demonstrative third ps pronoun agreement zeronoun first and second person agreement zeroCopula Katz demonstrative.
third personadposition copula zerointransitive verbNoun Greenberg demonstrative definite article Case zero.
noun number gender zero And about processing economyNegative Gardiner Jespersen negative argument negative adverb negativeparticle zero.
verb aspect negative C negative polarity cycle Willis Adjunct AP PP CFuture and Aspect AuxiliaryA P M T C .
Indo European copulas English Cyclical renewal of aspect moodNo difference in copula depending on NP PP orAP predicate but inside the be paradigm es Dem .
bheu grow Latin fui Old English be become wes remain dwell sta stand estar Spanish tha Hindi t Irish wert turn vartate Sanskrit wair an Gothic .
and weor an OE Jost 1909 Campbell 1959 Wischer 2010 Petr 2013In Gmc s b w distinction is mood based mixedindicative and s subjunctive .
OE am art is sind on vs beo present current situation future genericME am art is vs beo present Sg Pl later are Wischer 2010 222 b form in OE more frequent in.
Pl than Sg Petr 2013 303 b used in ME for pl indicSo GMc mood OE future ME pluralCurrently again mood based be been being Gmc and Early English Mod English.
New copulas arise for aspect and mood remain stay appear sound 60 or so Other languages select permanence orthe type of predicateidentifying can only be be Huddleston .
Pullum 271 classifying aspectual modallocation aspectual The English copula appear French intransitive come into sight .
Ambiguity 1 at it may apere at e prescience is signe of is necessite OED 374 Chaucer Boethius v iv 2 And the Lord si and it apperide yuel in hisei en OED a1425 Wycliffite Bible L V Royal.
Isa lix 15 3 I am afraid of making them appear considerableby taking notice of them OED 1712 Steele Spectator 445 7 in hise i3en.
apperide it DP copula PP change i 3S or DP copula AP visual Th remain Anglo Norman staybehind PP and AP.
1 so shall remayn be the grace of God all thedays of myn liff Visser I 195 1460 Paston 4 5 2 the great primar whiche before daies I gave tomy wif remayn styll to her OED 1513 Will ofRobert Fabyan in R Fabyan New Chron .
Eng 1811 Pref p vii 3 The lyppes of the membre remaynedene holytogether a1450 Arderne 17th Internat Congr Med 1914 xxiii 121 to her remayn.
V DP loc DP PPremayn primar dur primar to her location i 3S duration Th Many other intransitives copulas .
e g stay Old French Latin stare late ME to stop and keep the meaning of stay dwell and copula in 1 That this their meate may not stay longvndigested in their stomackes they sup off.
the foresaid broth OED 1600 J Pory tr J Leo Africanus Geogr Hist Afr i 20 Rest of the talkExamples of Dem Copchosen from many language families .
Afro Asiatic IE Creole Austronesian Explanation will in terms ofand projection labelingPhrase to head but original flavor is kept Old Egyptian 1 Middle 2 .
1 rmt p n ntr w jp wman MS PROX god P MP DIST this man those gods 2 tmj t pw jmn tcity F be west F.
The West is a city Loprieno 1995 2001 3 p w pw i 3MS distal copula pst pr Structurally Specifier to head.
Faltz 1973 Berman Grosu 1976 1 david hu ha melexDavid SM the ruler David is the king 2 hu melex al jisra el.
He ruled over Israel 3 ata hu ha is2SM SM the man You are the man Katz 1996 86 90 Still pronoun because the lo negative.
precedes verb but not hu Faltz 7 4 moshe lo hu ayefmoshe NEG he tired 5 moshe hu lo ayefmoshe he NEG tired.
Moshe isn t tired The eyno negative is incompatible becauseit has a pronominal suffix 6 moshe hu eyno ayefmoshe he NEG 3SM tired.
Classical to Standard Arabic cf Eid 1983 Alsaeedi 2015 Classical pronoun 1 allahu huwa lhayyuGod 3MS the living.
God is the living Benveniste 1966 1971 165 Standard copula 2 Anta huwa D Dakii2MS COP the smart You are the smart one .
Alsaeedi 31 newspaper 2012 Hijazi Arabic Alsaeedi 2015 3 ahmad ma hu wa ad duktoorAhmad NEG MS the doctor Ahmad is not the doctor Alsaeedi 39 .
ma huwa hiya etc mu mi 4 ana mu ad duktoor1S NEG be the doctor I am not the doctor Alsaeedi 40 5 huda mi ma hiya mu ad duktoorah.
Huda NEG be F the doctor FS Huda is not the female doctor Alsaeedi 41 Egyptian Arabic Edwards 2006 51 3 6 a ana huwwa l mas u l.
1S he the responsible I am the responsible b il mushkila hiyya T Talabathe problem FS she the students The problem is the students .
7 faTma ma hiyya sh il mas u laFatima NEG be 3SF NEG the responsible Fatima is not the one responsible Arabic changeshuwwa hu wwa .
i 3MS u phi gender number Specifier to Head Spec TP T but couldbe Spec PredP Pred Korn 2011 on E Iranian cf also Benveniste 1959 .
Wakhi pronominal clitics be 1 tu t kui2S PRO who Who are you 2 chis xabar tei.
wat news is What s the matter both from Morgenstierne 1938 taken fromKorn 2011 55 Polish Indo European Slavic from.
Rutkowski 2006 Bondaruk 2013 1 Adam to by lingwist Adam PRT was linguist Adam was a linguist Both are optional in the present .
2 Jan to jest m j najlepszy przyjacielJan PRT is my best friendTo can only link identical categories not DP and Argument vs adjunct 3 Adam by lingwist mieszkaj c w NH.
Adam was linguist living in New Haven Adam was a linguist when he lived in New 4 Adam to by lingwista mieszkaj c w NHAdam TO was linguist living in New Haven Rutkowski 2006 .
But still lots of debate e g regarding low to inBondaruk 237 Similar lag in RussianOptional Demonstrative 1 Pyotr eto nash doctor.
Pyotr this our doctor Pyotr he is our doctor 2 Pyotr on bolen nash doctorPyotr he sick our doctor Peter he is sick .
3 Pyotr on byl bolenP he was sick data from Tatyana Slobodchikoff Demonstrative and adverbialsource of copulas.
1 a Mi da i tat SaramaccanI am your father I am your father McWhorter 1997 87 b H n d d Gaam he is the chief.
He s the chief McWhorter 1997 98 2 D w mi d a w suthe woman is at house The woman is at home McWhorter 1997 88 Identification classification.
vs locationSaramaccanequative locativeidentificational da d class membership da d .
McWhorter 2005 117 8 171 NigerianPidginbe na de Mazzoli 2013 91 Galo Tibeto Burman Tali .
In Galo functions as topic marker as wellas unmarked copula and derives from a proximal demonstrative according to 1 b k az n 3S 1S GEN friend ART .
3S 1S GEN friend COP He is my friend Post 2007 429 Swahili Bantu Lingua Franca McWhorter 1992 very fast change toModern Swahili with ni for all copula uses .
This ni derives from a presentative 1 vita ni taabuwar that trouble war is trouble There is currently also a pronominal strategy 2 Hamisi yu mpishi.
Hamisi is a cook Early Modern Swahili C17 18Older Swahili had mainly locative li 3 Tu li po1P be here We are here .
Knappert 1969 from McWhorter 1992 20 but was reanalyzed around 1900 as pasttense affix and was replaced by ni andpronouns and kept zero Now ni is renewedwith locative ko .
McWhorter s cause for rapid change L2 Zoque Mixe Zoque Demonstrative and copula co occur in 1 Te tuwi kana b dete tuwi 0 kana p te.
DET dog 3B old REL PRED The dog is old Faarlund 2012 141 2 2 te xka e che b te DET girl small she The girl she is small .
Passamaquoddy Ng 2004 Demonstratives show three deicticcategories number animacy and obviation but the ambiguous use is the distalinanimate mostly inflected for number .
1 Yektok nit taktal okAnim Rem P Inan dist S doctor P Those are the doctors Ng 29 Now the well known example Old Chinese Modern.
1 Shi shi lie guithis COP violent ghost This is a violent ghost Peyraube Wiebusch 1994 398 2 Zhe shi lie gui.
thisCOP violent ghost This is a violent ghost 3 Ta bu shi lie gui3S NEG COP violent ghost He s not a violent ghost .
Hui Ling Yang p c for 2 and 3 Shi is also past 4 wo qu nian shi xuesheng1S last year COP student Last year I was a student .
Hui Ling Yang p c Future needs a modal e g hui 5 wo bushi bu xihuan tamen1S neg be neg like 3P Me it is not that I don t like them .
Equation and locationsemantic proximate identity formal i 3S semantic place location Croft Cycle Samoan Polynesian .
Negative particle l and existential verb iai be are now used as negative prefix in 2 1 E leai se meaTAM NEG exist ART thing There is nothing .
2 E leai gaoi SinaTAM NEGmove Sina Sina didn t move Mosel Hovdhaugen 1992 481 Indonesian Austronesian .
Adalah and ialah are optional copulas used formally Ialah is only used with 3rd person 1 Itu adalah ialah Elly it be Elly Their origin .
ada lah presence exist emphaticia lah 3rd ps emphaticLah subject is used 2 ini lah rumah nathis EMP home 3.
This is his home Tendeloo 1901 259 Ada is used for existence and locatives 3 Ia ada di rumah3S be loc at home He is at home .
4 Ada tamube exi visitor There is a visitor Kwee 135 and many other uses Indonesian ctd.
Sneddon 1996 238 says that adalah ialahare not verbs because they precede thenegative but this is rare Other verbs aretypically used with negatives e g merupakanThe ti ada negative is competing Croft 1991 .
The demonstrative itu may be renewing thecopula Verhaar p c to Nicholas but no ituitu Peter Suwarno p c Indonesian copulas ia lah be.
i 3 EMP i 3 ada lah be negative be tiada negative merupakan Croft s Existential Cycle.
Type A Type BRegular NEG NEG NEG EXISTNEG NEG EXIST Neg copula Neg 1 raSmi na Le haLe bi Dige ho g utt a Le.
Rashmi tomorrow Haledib DAT go NPST 3SG F Rashmi goes to Haledib tomorrow 2 anil ka le jige ho gu vud illaAnil college DAT go NPST GER NEG Anil won t doesn t go to college .
Miestamo 2005 78 based on Sridhar 1990 112 220 adapted from vd Auwera Vossen Cf Tamil Asher 1985 Croft 1991 17 3 aanatan uurle illeAnand town LOC be neg.
Ch orti Maya 1 ma tuk a e wy a rNEG what ART eat NOM There isn t any food for positive there is a verb ayan .
2 Ma ja x ch okNEG 3 young It isn t new young Dugan 2013 140 142 Chol Mayan Coon 2006 .
a exist be no copula even in past Berlin: Mouton. Miestamo, Matti 2005. Standard Negat Mosel, Ulrike & Even Hovdhaugen 1992. Samoan Reference Grammar. Oslo. Petré, Peter 2014. ... and it apperide yuel in hise iȝen. (OED, a1425 Wycliffite Bible L.V. Royal Isa. lix. 15) (3)I am afraid of making them appear considerable by taking notice of them. ... Formal Syntax and Language ...

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