Functional Food and Food Functionalisation

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Brighton and Sussex Universities Food NetworkFunctional Food andFunctionalisationDr Dipak K SarkerBiomaterials Research Group.
School of Pharmacy and Biomolecular SciencesUniversity of Brightond k sarker brighton ac uk OverviewBiological assembly of molecules in a complicated soup .
Use of foods as therapeutics Engineering of chemicals within new foods Functional Food The term Functional Foods was first introduced in Japan in the mid 1980s and refers to processed foods containing ingredients that aid.
specific bodily functions Functional foods are foods that have a potentially positive effect onhealth beyond basic nutrition Oatmeal for example is a functional foodbecause it contains natural soluble fibre that can help lower bloodcholesterol.
Some foods are modified to have health benefits Some functional foodsare generated around a particular functional ingredient for example foodscontaining pro vitamins probiotics prebiotics or plant stanols and sterols Functional foods are part of the list of products that people consume toincrease their health status or contribute to reducing their disease burden.
Functional foods Position statement of the American Dietetic Association Journal of the American Dietetic Association Functional FoodExample Functional agent BenefitGreen tea Epigallocatechin 3 Free radical destroyer use in anti gallate polyphenol cancer and heart disease.
Yogurt Metchnikoff s probiotic Use in colon microflora equilibrium bacillus e g anti diarrhoeal reduction of pepticLactobacillus ulcer ulcerative colitis IBS productionrhamnosus of acidolin vitamin K B12 B9 folateLactobacillus.
acidophilusHoney Quercetin flavonoid Free radical destroyer use in arterialpigment and circulatory health diabetesprophylaxisBeer and Resveratrol polyphenol Free radical destroyer use in anti .
wine aging anti heart disease anti bloodclot agent anti inflammatory anti Oats b glucan lipid binding Use in reduction in serum cholesterol polysaccharide LDL 10 and vessel plaquesSoya Stanol ester EMEA approved Use in cholesterol.
uptake blocking reduction in blood Functional Food Nature teaches us a thing or two Foods provide us with water carbohydrate and glucose protein fats minerals vitamins factors and water.
Foods are made of molecules chemicals water being one of them A food chemical ascorbic acid Found in coloured fruitand vegetables used for.
tissue growth repair andneutralising free radicals Functional Food Functional foods promote well being in themselves Soya a mix ofprotein oil and intrinsic ingredients from the bean contains phyto .
oestrogens stanols that reduce blood cholesterol LDL and free fats thereby reducing obesity hyperlipidemia and athosclerosis Oats have after heating a particular smearing texture this is becausethey contain soluble and insoluble lubricating mucilages glycoproteins and polysaccharides gums .
They can 1 bind water increase stool volume and thus aid bolus transit reducing diverticulitis and bowel congestion and torsion but also 2 sequesterexcess lipids and fats and heavy metals allowing excretion withoutabsorption and thus aid a low calorie diet and a lowering of risk with a fat laden Western diet.
Broccoli kale and beets so called super foods contain bright colouredpigments betanin reds chlorophyll greens carotenoids oranges xanthophylls yellows and flavonoids and flavonols pinks and violets These compounds not only appear as pretty colours but also prevent freeradicals that destroy tissue and cause cancer and fatty build ups.
Functionalisation We answer back to basic raw food raw materials withfood improvements for our busy modern life Food functionalisation we copy functional foods andimprove on them.
Oil dispersible Vitamin C ascorbyl palmitate Added to fatty foods such as biscuits and margarine toprevent them going rancid.
on storageAnother chemicalFunctionalisationThe secret is we build up in stages1 Make something very tiny assemblies of molecules.
2 Add the assemblies to make a superstructure3 Add the superstructures to give something that can be prodded chewed spread and poured with a texture that can be appreciated e g jamsand confectionaryJam an assembly of water pectin .
fruit pieces fruit acids and naturalWithout food technology we re reduced to monotony with a perfunctoryand a risky and poorly hygienic parasite and germ laden diet which isincompatible with our busy lives love of food and life expectancy The answerlies in harnessing natures secrets and adapting and reusing the materials.
that evolved over hundreds of millennia Functionalisation How do cranberries citrus fruits and dry cured salamis stay fresh Because of the acids they contain in order sorbic citric ascorbic propionic lactic respectively We now use these acids to prolong.
shelf life in other commercial foods by retarding the growth ofspoilage microbes and pathogens How do you ensure you cover your salad leaves with simple oil andvinegar vinaigrette dressing Add an emulsifier ground mustardseeds ground peppercorns or egg yolk This means small oil droplets.
are evenly dispersed in the vinegar or lemon juiceFunctionalisation How do you make foods such as 1 souffl s 2 mousses or 3 pannacotta which are unique and contrived but ever so lovely Youneed functionalising materials polymers such as .
1 egg white ovalbumin entwined with wheat and flour proteins gliadins 2 sugar dehydrated ovalbumin and a lactalbumin and b lactoglobulinproteins from milk and 3 collagen derived gelatin gelatine or seaweed derived alginate for.
vegetarians together with egg yolk lecithin to emulsify the fat globulesin full fat cream An assemblyof polymersand proteins.
gives a jelly gel that trapsair water or fatFunctionalisationEver had a tannin furry tongue on consumption of.
claret grape skin or chewing a pip or green tea That sthe polyphenols reacting with the protein of yourtongue to cement and glue it up A temporarysituation Food technologists now use tannin richvarieties of food foods rich in natural tannins or.
refined natural tannins to improve foods Beer and champagne with long lasting froth foam head enhanced with hop acids and otherpolyphenols that glue together natural proteins in theproduct give the bubble a mechanical resilience to.
soap in the glass rinse water or the lipid natural soap from your lips and lipstickLet s take a look at simple beer foam Beer foamBasic beer foam ingredients from malted and fermented barley and.
Primary ingredient Functionalising agentHydrophobin proteins Iso a acids hop acids Lipid transfer proteins LTPs Polyphenols e g catechinInsoluble hordein proteins Lipid fatsHydrolysed hordein proteins Arabinoxylan gums.
Elastic protein Z b glucan gum beer viscosifier Lipid binding proteins LBPs MetalsShokribousjein et al 2011 Beer foam stabilitySuper structured multiple.
Gas in layersHydrophobinsbubble Beer Albumin protein ZGlobular LTPTrapped CO2 Arabinoxylans.
Hop acid metal Polyphenol Interfering lipidHydrophobins are the surface attachment proteins produced by the fungus yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae in brewing they also trap carbon dioxide bubbles preservingdrink fizz Very important in lagers and beer froth Beer is an excellent source of Bvitamins B2 B3 B5 B6 B9 and B12 produced as part of brewing microbial synthesis .
Shokribousjein et al 2011 Hughes et al 1999 Cooper et al 2002 Linder 2009 model of beer bubble surface and interstitial liquid Foam stability modelsSarker et al 1995a Sarker et al 1995b Sarker et al 1998 Disruption of bubble Joining of protein Rigidification of.
surface molecules on the bubble surface bubble surface Surface elasticity mobility D.
Unificationmobility DConcentration of Concentration of Concentration oflipid fat in polyphenol catechin arabinoxylan inbubble surface in bubble surface bubble surface.
Conclusions Natural and modified natural ingredients can be used to shape modify and preserve foods The same ingredients can be added in other combination tocreate new foods and create foods of superior quality texture.
Terms such as nanotechnology the notion of molecularconstructions that in modern times alarm people have alwaysbeen the building blocks of all foods What we do is only a question of imagination what theconsumer wants and what the technologist is able to create.
AcknowledgementsInstrumental in the work presented here Dr David Clark Bovina Mountain Consulting New York Drs Yves Popineau and Monique Axelos Institut National de laRecherche Agronomique Nantes France.
Dr Peter Wilde Institute of Food Research Norwich References Cooper D J et al 2002 Journal and Agricultural and Food Chemistry 50 7645 7650 Hughes P S et al 1999 In European Brewing Convention Symposium.
on Beer Foam Quality 27 129 138 Linder M B 2009 Current Opinion in Colloid and Interface Science 14 Sarker D K et al 1995a Colloids and Surfaces B Biointerfaces 3 Sarker D K et al 1995b Journal and Agricultural and Food Chemistry 43 295 300.
Sarker D K et al 1998 Cereal Chemistry 75 493 499 Shokribousjein Z et al 2011 Cerevisia 35 85 101Functional Food. The term FunctionalFoodswas first introduced in Japan in the mid-1980s and refers to processed foods containing ingredients that aid specific bodily functions . Functional foods are foods that have a potentially positive effect on health beyond basic nutrition. Oatmeal for example, is a functional food because it contains natural soluble fibre that can help lower blood cholesterol

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