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Humboldt Penguin Breeding Managementat the Rosamond Gifford Zoo Presenters Henry Fox DirectorAdrienne Whiteley Collection Manager.Deborah Tobin Penguin Keeper Workshop Objectives Describe strategies to create a successfulbreeding program Highlight techniques for nest set up. Describe theories behind fostering andhighlight techniques to obtain egg data Demonstrate egg candling and describeother incubation practices Workshop Objectives. Discuss staff involvement during hatching Highlight post hatch priorities and needsof parents Discuss importance of monitoring chickdevelopment. Discuss all aspects of weaning chicksthrough their integration with colony Highlight special cases and researchopportunities Welcome to Penguin Coast.o Exhibit opened inJune 2005o Original colony of 19birds from Sea WorldSan Diego Portland.OR Brookfield IL Philadelphia PA andColumbus OH o Staff advised that itmay take up to 5.years for successful Breeding ManagementEarly Success April 2006recommendations 4.penguins hatchedo All 4 successfullyparent reared until 2006 2012recommendations.RGZ has hatched35 Humboldtpenguin chickso All 35 chicks wereparent or foster. Strategies for successo Communicationo Observationo Consistency Communication.o Correspondence between the Senior staffand SSP managers to establish a planthroughout the breeding seasono Establish and post a Breeding seasonprotocol for the area Make sure all staff.members adhere to it ObservationObserving recording all breeding activity this includeso copulation to nest building .o identifying potential conflicts disputes overterritory and disagreements amongexisting pairso allows staff to plan for potential foster pairso Monitoring egg development and subsequent.chick development immediately addressing anyconcerns that arise Consistencyo Have a primary keeper for the area limiting cross training during breeding.o Staff adjust their actions and routines andare able to work around the birds withoutdisrupting them Nest set up Exhibit design allows.birds the opportunityto establish abreeding site outdoorsor indoors Outdoor nest are.accessible all yearround Nest crates aresupplied indoors atonset of breeding Outdoor Burrows. Burrows are spread outalong exhibit to minimizedisputes among males Tops are removable andentire burrow can be.cleaned when needed usually mid late summer Burrows are equipped with 2 drainage pipes Rocks are supplied in the. Several larger piles of rocksare available along theexhibit for the penguins toadd to nests Indoor Burrows. Air kennels size 200 Equipped with Dri deck matting clay cat litter Additional piles of rocksare placed in the room. Space kennelsaccordingly to minimizedisputes among males Indoor Burrows Egg Incubation and Data.Collection Staff at RGZ have madeit a policy to obtain asmuch data as we canduring incubation . Monitor eggdevelopmentthroughout incubation 1st candling thenoptimally once per.week until pipping Staff discussion onwhen to fostereggs chicks Considerations for. Allows non recommended SSP pairs togain experience of incubation and raising Some pairs may be genetically valuablebut behaviorally questionable in terms of Eases burden on pairs raising 2 chicks at. Allows for early double clutching in abreeding season Techniques to obtain and checkdeveloping eggs Ideally it is best to check egg.development when only oneparent is on the nest Crate burrow design andplacement requires staff to accessthe eggs from the entrance of the. Using a large bath towel staff cansafely obtain the egg s by gentlylifting up the bird that isincubating Always keep egg covered in your.hand do not rotate while in the Most pairs especiallyinexperienced ones receive adummy egg while the natural eggis removed for candling. Candling Staff should conduct 1st candling at day 7 10 ofincubation Recommend candling all eggs throughout thebreeding season regardless of SSP.recommendations Important to have fertilityrecords for reference Eggs should be weighed and checkedthoroughly at each candling Weekly candling allows staff to address any.issues that arise ie improper weight loss ofegg s too much weight loss compromises ofegg exterior Other considerations duringincubation. Feeding nesting birds Optimally staff does not feed birds in their Want to encourage parents switching off thenest equally limits one parent from staying onthe nest too long decreases displaced.aggression of one bird towards another Continue offering normal amounts of fish to all Chick hatching Based on incubationrecords staff should.know the approximatepipping and hatch dates Chick should hatch within24 hours of an external Staff should be able to.identify strongvocalizations vs distressed ones Determine if assisthatching is needed. Considerations of Assist Chicks vocalizations are strong but thereis slow progress in hatching Egg membrane drying out too quickly Ideally it is best to not intervene in the.hatching process Risk of pre mature umbilical separation Assist Hatching Only EXPERIENCED staffshould assist hatch an egg. Theory behind assisting is Giving them a little extra Carefully and slowly moistenmembrane with very smallamounts of sterile water and.peel away shell Want to avoid chick aspirating Use hemastats to pull eggshell pieces away Remove pieces that have.completely separated fromthe membrane Assist hatchingHydrate membranes first then Giving them a little moreremove shell exterior breathing room. Post hatch priorities Obtain hatch Collect remainingshell pieces forgender testing. Check umbilicus forproper closing Check feedresponse from Post hatch priorities. Obtain Hatch weight Check Umbilicus Parent and Foster needs Increase foodoffering minimum3x s up to 5x s daily. If available staff canuse alternative fish silversides whenchicks are smaller Parent birds will.select smaller fish ifthey have theopportunity whenchicks are young Chick development. Monitoring weight If possible staffshould obtain dailyweight on thechicks for the first 3. Minimum of bi weekly weights upthrough weaning What to expect Chicks may begin exploring outside of.nest by 4 weeks Identify any hazards in regards to chickswhen exploring ie access to water Monitor parental response when chicks Observe parental response when chicks.re enter the nest Monitor possibility of earlier than normal Pull as early as 40 Signs that indicate tostart weaning. Continuous foodsolicitations by chickafter parents were Parents pecking atchicks or refusing to.allow chicks to returnback into nest Best to wean chickstogether if possible Assist feed until.chicks accept fishdirectly by hand Habituation to staff Scale training Pool lessons. Assist feeding On average it may take from 3 days to 2weeks for a chick to readily solicit andaccept food by hand each individual is Hydrate fish for approximately the first 5.days using 50 50 solution of electrolytesand tap water Give breaks between each fish for thefirst few sessions Chicks that catch on early should be.placed on regular schedule ie 2x s per Habituation to handling Allow chicks to becomeused to all facets of staffworking around them. Handling shouldincorporate beingpicked up desensitizingfor various procedures Identify potential birds.that may be especiallytractable and can laterbe used for specialevents tours Scale training. Goal acquirevoluntary weightson a regular basis Become part of thechicks routine of.moving from oneholding room to Scale training Pool lessons Acclimating and giving.the chicks practicetime before joining the Monitoring overallsafety of getting in out of pool on their own. Depending on staff should only work onechick at a time initially Slowly increase timeallowed in practice pools. Integration with colony Soliciting fromkeeper s and All chicks should accepting foodmeet certain readily by hand.standards before Safelyjoining exhibit maneuvering in outcolony of practice pools Received allrequired vaccines. Integration with colony Staff should discuss bestway to introduce chicksout on exhibit Be willing to adjust your.strategy from year to Expect some hazingfrom other birds May want to temporarilyremove problematic.birds from the exhibitduring initialintroduction Integration with ColonyLet chicks explore the exhibit on their.own before introducing other colony Integration with colony Slowly introduce rest of colony SPECIAL CASESAspergillosis. Hugo s Story Hugo hatched on June 26 2009 At 21 days old he was observed venturing outof the nest with one or both of his parents Appeared strong and alert and was steadily.gaining weight indicating that nothing seemedto be abnormal except for early exit of the nest After 3 days of this exploratory behavior hewould have bouts of energy and suddenly fallasleep outside of the nest Parents were.suddenly very skittish abnormal for them asthey are very experienced Hugo s Story By day 3 symptoms of labored breathing andwheezing appeared. Membranes were very pale Initial evaluation by veterinary staff indicateda potential heart murmur and or aspergillosis Hugo placed on O2 for 45 minutes andimmediately placed on a regime of.Voriconazole and Clavamox pending Aspertiter results Treatment had to be given orally supplemented Hugo with whole silversides Hugo s Story. Initial first few days of treatment Hugoshowed signs of improvement Parents were attentive responding to hissolicitations for food he did not wanderout of crate breathing was labored at.times mostly when handled fortreatments Ultrasound performed a week intotreatment some abnormalities found in Treatment .A roller coaster ride Upon discovery of respiratoryabnormalities began course ofnebulization treatments Nebulized Hugo in an induction chamber.with Amphotericin B Ideally Veterinary staff want to nebulizefor 15 minutes 1st session lasted 6 minutes stoppedwhen Hugo began severe open mouth. Sessions continued following day and he Hugo s treatment Nebulization treatments increased toB I D for 15 minutes each Supplemented him with extra silversides.at treatments although he was gainingweight he was well below average forchicks of the same age Other medications continued as well Voriconazole orally B I D in silversides . Terbutaline SQ B I D Baytril orally S I D very high WBC Hugo s treatment From day to day Hugo s breathing wouldfluctuate from near normal to very labored . Some nebulizing treatments were cut shortbased on how well he tolerated them Several times he was placed on O2 to relax hisrespiration intensity 2 weeks into treatment hit a rough patch for 2.days and it seemed that he may not survive Steady improvements made in the week Hugo s treatment Week 4 showed significant improvements Nebulizations discontinued. Terbutaline discontinued Baytril discontinued Breathing overall improved not labored Was more vocal and increasedsolicitations for food. Hugo s Story Throughout a difficult coarse of treatment staffremained optimistic of Hugo pulling through Staff were able to keep Hugo with his parents upuntil weaning. Due to the amount of handling duringtreatments he became a very tractable penguinand has remained so since then Rosamond Gifford Zoo contacted the SSP andhas requested that Hugo remain here.permanently due to the severity of his case Hugo has been a healthy bird and has thrivedever since Baby Huey Considerations for your own.Pool lessons. Assist feeding. On average it may take from 3 days to 2 weeks for a chick to readily solicit and accept food by hand (each individual is unique) ... Due to the amount of handling during treatments, he became a very tractable penguin and has remained so since then.