Immune System - Cabrillo College

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Immunity thebody s defenseAn immune cell macrophage engulfs ayeast cell pathogen .
Bio 1b ZoologyHannah Nevins Invaders The immune system recognizes foreignbodies and responds with the production of.
immune cells and proteins Two strategies have evolved the innate andthe acquired immune systems Innate Immunity of Invertebrates In insects an exoskeleton made of.
chitin forms the first barrier to The digestive system is protected by low pHand an enzyme that digests microbial cell wallscalled lysosome Hemocytes circulate within hemolymph and.
carry out phagocytosis the ingestion anddigestion of foreign substances includingCopyright 2008 Pearson Education Inc publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings Innate Immunity of VertebratesThe immune system of mammals is the best.
understood of the vertebrates Innate defenses include barrier defenses phagocytosis antimicrobial peptides Additional defenses are unique to vertebrates .
the inflammatory response and natural killerCopyright 2008 Pearson Education Inc publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings Human Lymphatic system Interstitial fluidLymph capillarySpleen Tissue Lymphatic.
cells vesselPeyer s patches small intestine vessels Lymph Masses ofnode defensive cells.
Barrier DefensesBarrier defenses include the skin andmucous membranes of therespiratory urinary and reproductive Mucus traps and allows for the removal of.
Many body fluids including saliva mucus andtears are hostile to microbes The low pH of skin and the digestive systemprevents growth of microbesCopyright 2008 Pearson Education Inc publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings.
Cellular Innate Defenses White blood cells leukocytes engulfpathogens in the body Groups of pathogens are recognized by Toll like receptors TLR .
Copyright 2008 Pearson Education Inc publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings Phagocytosis Microbes eating cells pathogensPHAGOCYTIC CELLcontaining.
Exocytosis cellulardebris is released Phagocytosis A white blood cell engulfs a microbe thenfuses with a lysosome to destroy the.
There are different types of phagocytic Neutrophils engulf and destroy microbes Macrophages are part of the lymphatic systemand are found throughout the body Eosinophils discharge destructive enzymes.
Dendritic cells stimulate development ofacquired immunity Cell Types Red White How your skin keeps out pathogens Ruptured mast cells in.
Pathogen Splinter tissue release histamines chemical signal to otherphagocytic cells Capillaries dilate Chemical Macrophage.
signals increase blood flow increase phagocytic cells The clotting process alsoRed blood cells Phagocytic cell starts Platelets.
Clotting factors signal Fibrin producedFig 43 8 1 Fig 43 8 2Pathogen Splinter.
Chemical Macrophagesignals FluidRed blood cells Phagocytic cell Fig 43 8 3Pathogen Splinter.
Chemical Macrophagesignals FluidCapillary PhagocytosisRed blood cells Phagocytic cell More phagocytic cells are released.
Pathogenic bacteria are engulfed and destroyed Pus a fluid rich in white blood cells dead microbes and celldebris accumulates at the site of inflammation Lymphocytematuration.
White blood cells calledlymphocytes recognizenodes and respond to antigens Spleen foreign molecules Lymphocytes that.
mature in the thymusabove the heart arecalled T cells and thosethat mature in bonemarrow are called B cells.
Acquired Immunity results from B and T T cells B cells Thymus Bone marrow spleen Combats viruses Combats bacteria intracellular extracellular.
pathogens pathogens Cell Types Red White Pathogens have antigens B cells haveantibodies Antigens Antibodies .
Each pathogen type has Surface proteins of B unique surface cellmolecules Match antigens Antibody binding Causes antibodies to be.
secreted from B cell Both B and T cells have Antigen bindingAntigen Antigen Antigen binding binding site bindingregions V V.
C C Constant C CTransmembraneHeavy chains chain chainDisulfide bridgeB cell Cytoplasm of B cell Cytoplasm of T cell T cell.
a B cell receptor b T cell receptor Antigen binding Epitopessites antigenicdeterminants .
Antigen binding sitesAntibody A AntigenAntibody CAntibody BFig 43 10.
Lymphocyte Development The acquired immune system has threeimportant properties Receptor diversity A lack of reactivity against host cells.
Immunological memory A Pathogen is tagged for Attack a B cell is selected for cloning Antibodies cause Selection causes rapid Neutralization clonal replication.
Agglutination Precipitation ruptureReplication Fig 43 14.
Antigen moleculesB cells thatspecificity AntigenClone of memory cells Clone of plasma cells The B cells form Two cell Types .
Memory Cells Plasma Cells Long lived Secrete many Await future antibodies to mark andencounters with specific block more bacteriaReplication.
Secondary Immune Response Get a disease you get Immunization injectingnatural immunization chemical or heat e g chicken pox inactivated antigens a k a vaccination.
Primary immune responseSecondary immune responseAntibody concentrationAntibodies102 to A Antibodies.
1000 7 14 21 28 35 42 49 56Exposure Exposure toto antigen A antigens A and BTime days Fig 43 15.
Primary immune response Secondary immune response toto antigen A produces antigen A produces antibodies to A antibodies to A primary immune response to antigenB produces antibodies to B Antibody concentration.
arbitrary units Antibodies102 Antibodies0 7 14 21 28 35 42 49 56Exposure Exposure to.
to antigen A antigens A and BTime days Pathogens can evolve to avoid detection Some pathogens change surface proteins Memory cells can not recognize.
Pathogens have shorter generation time relative to host they can evolve faster What does this mean for the efficacy of any givenhuman made antibiotic Some pathogens like AIDS hide inside your body s cells.
Intracellular invaders are dealt with by T cells Like B cells T cells have Diverse antigen receptors Two types Cytotoxic T cell Helper T cellInfected cell Microbe Antigen .
1 Antigen presentingassociates cellAntigen moleculefragment Antigen1 fragment.
Class I MHC Class II MHCmolecule 2 2 moleculeT cell T cell2 T cell receptorreceptor recognizes.
combination a Cytotoxic T cell b Helper T cell Cytotoxic T cellsCytotoxic T cellOnce bound to CD8 receptor T cell.
becomes an active killer Class I MHCTarget Peptideell antigenFig 43 18 1.
Cytotoxic T cellsCytotoxic T cellClass I MHC PoreTarget Peptideell antigen.
Perforins create pores in surface of target cellGranzymes enter cell initiate apoptosis cell death Fig 43 18 2 Cytotoxic T cellsReleased cytotoxic T cell.
Cytotoxic T cellCD8 TCR Dying target cellClass I MHC PoreTarget Peptideell antigen.
Perforins create pores in surface of target cellGranzymes initiate apoptosis cell death Fig 43 18 3 Fig 43 17presenting Peptide antigen.
Class II MHC moleculeTCR T cell receptor Helper T cellCytokines immunity Cell mediated.
secretion of immunityantibodies by attack onplasma cells B cell Cytotoxic T cell infected cells Cytotoxic T cells attack diseased ofcancerous cells labeled with MHCs.
Normal cells make MHC Major HistocompatibilityComplex molecules Abnormal cells like those with viruses make MHCswhich bind to viral proteins Those antigens are presented on the surface of the.
infected cell Then detected by cytotoxic T cells and the infected cell is destroyed Major Histocompatibility Complex Geneshave 100 Alternative Alleles.
Each MHC type presents a different type of antigen forT cells to recognize as alien Gene polymorphism increases chances of matching Thus increased MHC diversity increased diseaseresistance.
One study looked at male selection using old t shirts andMHC analysis females favor males with MHCs whichdiffer from their own why is this adaptive Splinter. Macrophage. Mast cell. Chemical. signals. Capillary. Phagocytic cell. Red blood cells. Fluid. Phagocytosis. More phagocytic cells are released. Pathogenic bacteria are engulfed and destroyed. Pus, a fluid rich in white blood cells, dead microbes, and cell debris, accumulates at the site of inflammation. Figure 43.8 Major events in a ...

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