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Investigative JournalismOpportunities and challenges facing mediastudents bloggersIsaiah K CherutichUSIU A .1st December 2017 I J Definition functions Investigative journalism involvesexposing to the public matters that areconcealed either deliberately by.someone in a position of power oraccidentally behind a chaotic mass offacts and circumstances that obscureunderstanding It requires using bothsecret and open sources documents .Hunter M L 2011 8 Story Based Inquiry A Manual forInvestigative Journalists Gratuit UNESCO Definition functions Investigative journalism seeks toexpose unethical immoral and.illegal behaviour by governmentofficials politicians as well as privateKovach and Rosenstiel 2007 145 9 Definition functions Investigative journalism has the potential.to make a worthwhile contribution tosociety by drawing attention to failureswithin society s systems of regulation andto the ways in which those systems can becircumvented by the rich the powerful.and the corrupt de Burgh 2008 3 Renown Kenyan investigative Journalists Mohammed Ali Jicho pevu John Allan Robert Onsarigo Denis Okari John Kamau. Alex Chamwada John Ngirachu etcMost investigative journalists work for and onbehalf of the public interest for the publicgood what prompts a journalist to go theextra mile risk own life to tell these very.secretive information Perceptions How do media practitionersunderstand view investigativejournalism . Why do some media people fearInvestigative Journalism Examples of Julian Assange Edward Snowden Wikileaks Common perceptions about I J. Elicits fear Too hot to handle Confrontational approach to journalism One needs to know the rules of the game to navigate the twists and turns . Going for the story behind an ordinary Too demanding a cliff hanger Ethics of Investigative Journalism Investigative reporting may be defined as stories Contain original work not leaked investigations.from law authorities Show a pattern of systemic problems not just oneisolated incident affecting one individual An attempt to right a wrong Explain complex social problems . Reveal corruption wrongdoing or abuse of power Lucinda S Fleeson 2008 Ten Steps to Investigative Reporting in conjunction withthe International Center for Journalists Qualities of a successful investigative reporter A good flair for news nose for news . The ability to detect stories that willbecome big topics and do follow ups An investigative reporter needs to be adedicated hard worker Discuss a big subject extensively in order.to be able to produce professionalquality content Media Law Ethics as regards Investigative Journalism Investigative journalists need a lot of legal Learn how to apply the hypothesis based.inquiry methodology and Ensure that their story is viable fact evidenced well resourced researched Should enable journalists to challengeassumptions and draw conclusions from.various arguments Amman base Arab Reporters for Investigative Journalism ARIJ Executive Director RanaSabbagh a Jordanian journalist columnist media trainer Opportunities challenges in Investigative Journalism Robust telecommunications industry ICT network .freedom of expression a conducive environmentfor information dissemination An information hungry literate inquisitive Digitization fully embraced An expanded e business environment paper less. Affordable internet connection Media Convergence Affordable ICT gadgets and related accessories Challenges of I J in Kenya I J in Kenya is hampered by the fear of.defamation criminal libel The fear of victimization Corruption Inadequate personnel Caveat on national security issues. Inadequate financial resources Waning editorial commitmentOngowo Jim O 2001 Ethics of Investigative Journalism A study of a tabloid and a qualityNewspaper in Kenya Quotes Mbeke 2010 43 Benefits of I J. Transparency accountability The fight against Corruption enhanced Journalists get recognized rewarded Good governance Enhanced democratic space. Serves the public interest etc Ethics of Investigative JournalismHouston 2009 108 says investigativereporting is not for the faint hearted Investigative Journalism not only.demands the highest standards ofaccuracy but also delivers more ethicaldilemmas on a daily basis than almost anyother form of journalism Ongowo Jim O 2001 Ethics of Investigative Journalism A study of a tabloid and a.quality Newspaper in Kenya quotes Houston 2009 108 I J redefined Horrie 2008 114 says investigative journalism isa generic form in which the journalistsor a newspaper initiates the story .based on a suspicion of wrong doing rather than simply reporting in a morepassive and disinterested way theroutine news of the day orunscheduled disasters and accidents . I J redefined Investigative reporting involves not simplycasting light on a subject but also usually making a more prosecutorial case thatsomething is wrong Kovach and Rosenstiel. 2007 p 153 If investigative journalism always had to beperfect very little would get investigated We re shining a feeble torch into a large darkcupboard We re dealing with tricky people .Gilligan 2011 Journalism blogging Like journalists and publishers bloggerssometimes publish information thatother people don t want published . Are bloggers journalists Who is a blogger A blogger is a A person who regularly writes material fora blog Oxford Living Dictionaries . b A person who keeps a Web log blog or publish an online diary a personalchronological log of thoughts publishedon a Web page also called Weblog www dictionary com . MCK Journalist Journalist means any person who holds adiploma or a degree in mass communication froma recognized institution of higher learning and isrecognized as such by the Media Council of Kenya .or any other person who was practising as ajournalist immediately before the commencementof this Act or who holds such other qualificationsas are recognized by the Council and earns a livingfrom the practice of journalism or any person who.habitually engages in the practice of journalismand is recognized as such by the Council MediaAct 2007 Blogging Why do people blog For fun a hobby a.source of income Possibly an attempt to develop aportfolio so that when they feel they are ready they arestill welcome What is the public perception ofBloggers Influencers Intruders .Busybodies Alternative sources of information Citizen journalists Spheres of influence Bloggers specialize in all kinds of information Agriculture Technology . Politics Fashion Entertainment Business Tourism Gossip Photography etc Bloggers Association of Kenya BAKE Robert Alai Timothy Obare Daniel.Ominde Cyprian Nyakundi Sylvia Njoki Jackson Biko Nancie Mwai Mutua Matheka Samuel Majani Jane Josphat Gachie Juliana Rotich SharonMundia Philiph Mwaniki etc. Challenges in blogging Investigative Journalism The biggest challenge for bloggers getting orattracting an audience Journalists are asked to be skeptical and alwayslook behind a story and do the necessary research . Confidentiality protect the identity of the peopleinvolved in a story Investigative journalism often puts news workers inconflict with the power elite the rich the corruptwho seek to conceal information . Credibility issues Challenges of blogging More and more stories coming upevery day about bloggers gettinginto trouble for what they post . Example A US based Kenyan lawyer Ms Regina Njoguhas sued a Kenyan blogger for defamation and failure topull down an offending article around march 28th 2016that made false unsubstantiated and defamatorystatements about her Ms Njogu seeks damages for and actual.malice and reckless disregard for the truth totalling Ksks 10 2 What is defamation Generally defamation is a false unprivileged statement of fact that isharmful to someone s reputation and.published with fault meaning as a resultof negligence or malice Libel is a written defamation slander is a spoken defamation Article No 2 of CODE OF CONDUCT FOR THE PRACTICE OF JOURNALISM Media Council 2013.Accuracy and fairness 1 A person subject to this Act shall write afair accurate and an unbiased story onmatters of Public interest 2 All sides of the story shall be reported .wherever possible 3 Comments shall be sought from anyone whois mentioned in an unfavourable context andevidence of such attempts to seek thecomments shall be kept . Article No 3 of the Media Act 2013Independence 1 Journalists shall defend the independence of alljournalists from those seeking influence or controlover news content . 2 A person under this act shall a Gather and report news without fear or favour and resist undue influence from any outside forces including advertisers sources story subjects powerful individuals and special interest groups . b Resist those who would buy or politicallyinfluence news content or who would seek tointimidate those who gather and disseminate news Article No 3 of the Media Act 2013 c Determine news content solely through editorial.judgement and not the result of outside influence d Resist any self interest or peer pressure thatmight undermine journalistic duty and service tothe public e Recognize that sponsorship of the news shall.not be used in any way to determine restrict ormanipulate content f Refuse to allow the interests of ownership ormanagement to influence news judgment andcontent inappropriately . Article 7 Media Council Act 2013Unnamed Sources 1 Unnamed sources shall not be used unless thepursuit of the truth will best be served by notdisclosing the source who shall be known by the.editor and reporter 2 When material is used in a report from sourcesother than the reporter s these sources shall beindicated in the story Confidentiality .A person subject to this Act have a professionalobligation to protect confidential sources of information Copyright Act U S The Copyright Act says that fairuse for purposes such as criticism .comment news reporting teaching including multiple copies for classroom use scholarship or research is not aninfringement on copyright If you arecommenting on or criticizing an item.someone else has posted you have afair use right to quote Thank You de BURGH H 2008 32 53 The Emergence of Investigative Journalism In de BURGH H Investigative Journalism London Routledge . GILLIGAN A 2011 Phone hacking My big fear is this scandal could damage investigativejournalism 10 July 2011 online Accessed 10 July 2011 Available from the WorldWide http www telegraph co uk news ... hacking 8628148 Phone hacking My big fear is this scandal could damage investigative journalism html . HOUSTON B 2009 The Investigative Reporter s Handbook A Guide to Documents Databases and Techniques 5th edition St Martins Bedford Books KOVACH B and T ROSENSTIEL 2007 The Elements of Journalism What NewspeopleShould Know and the Public Should Expect New York Three Rivers Press Lucinda S Fleeson 2008 Ten Steps to Investigative Reporting in conjunction with the.International Center for Journalists ICJ MBEKE O P 2010 Mass Media in Kenya Systems and Practice Nairobi Jomo KenyattaFoundation Ongowo J 2011 Investigative Journalism Ethics of Investigative Journalism Master ofArts Thesis International Journalism University of Leeds pdf.I.J Definition & functionsâ€¦ â€œInvestigative journalism involves exposing to the public matters that are concealedâ€“either deliberately by someone in a position of power, or accidentally, behind a chaotic mass of facts and circumstances that obscure understanding.