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IS RELIGIONUNIVERSAL There are implications to this statement What makes a religion a A supernatural force rituals practitioners a world view .
morals values myths symbols origin story and an after deathexplanation When did religion evolve Homo neanderthalensis burials La Chappelle aux Saints France Shanidar Cave Iraq.
Upper paleolithic Homo sapienSungir Russia THEORIES ONTHE ORIGIN OFTylor Freud Malinowski Durkheim Marx.
Why did religion evolve Edward Tylor a need to understand Animism Sigmund Freud Psychological Religion is an illusion and it derives its.
strength from the fact that it falls in with ourinstinctual desires Religion as infantile Religion as neuroses Religion to prevent grotesque actions.
Bronislaw Malinowski Anxiety is not born out of speculation or reflection still less out of illusion or apprehension butrather out of the real tragedies of human life out of the conflict between human plans and.
realities Emile Durkheim Community If religion has given birth to all that is essential insociety it is because the idea of society is the soul ofreligion .
A religion is a unified system of beliefs and practicesrelative to sacred things that is to say things set apartand forbidden beliefs and practices which unite intoone single moral community called a Church all thosewho adhere to them .
Sacred and profane Karl Marx Control Religion is the sigh of the oppressed creature theheart of a heartless world just as it is the spirit of aspiritless situation It is the opium of the people The.
abolition of religion as the illusory happiness of thepeople is required for their real happiness Thedemand to give up the illusion about its condition isthe demand to give up a condition which needsillusions .
Witchcraft as controlSUPERNATURALReligious forces beings Religious forces A religious force is impersonal sacred and powerful .
Ancient Hawaiian Mana Gained and lost through pono balance Certain people places and things have mana Traditional Hawaiians gain through sex Lono and violence Ku Chinese Qi The Taoist life force Vital energy that constitutes thehuman body but also links all life together .
Traditional Chinese Medicine blames Qi for illness through balance Rhythm and flow Hindu Prana Sanskrit for life force in both animate and inanimate Religious beings gods Religious beings can be human or nonhuman but they have a structure or.
Social values and culture seem to make sense of the types of gods and whatthey are like Theism God creates and controls life actively Monotheistic Ex Zoroastrian Ahura Mazda Akhenatan in the 1300 s Polytheistic Hinduism and Greek mythology .
Deism No revelation scientific revolution response to God Pantheism The universe nature is God Jainism in India Nonviolence Religious beings spirits souls Animism.
Spirits are more personal They are often guardians and scapegoats Ancestor spirits or ghosts Ghost marriage among the Nuer in Sudan Ancestor worship veneration of Where beliefs in souls exists ancestor worship often does .
Rituals exist to appease ghosts Cultivate kin values and loyalty The ghosts often mediate between god and the people People may ask for favors Death Rituals Rites of Passage.
Day of the dead Dia de Los Aztec origins Celebration of the dead in private andin public Prepare the graves.
Prepares the altars Prepare meals for living and dead Exchange offerings with the living What is the meaning of death forMexicans in this example and how.
does this relate to the festival Berawan funeral rites Stage 1 2 10 days or rituals following the death Stage 2 8 months to several years where thecorpse is stored in a long house The soul of the.
deceased is slowly transformed into a perfectspirit but is homeless and unhappy Stage 3 6 10 days where the corpse returns tothe home and a lavish party is thrown Here thefamily takes out the bones and cleans them .
collecting the remains Stage 4 Remains are removed to the finalresting place Reincarnation Hindu Punarjanma Samsara is the endless cycle of life and.
death based on the illusion of autonomy and the desire togenerate karma Reincarnation occurs to experience fruit of karmas tomaintain desire of material things to fulfill a debt to undergosuffering due to bad actions and to hopefully attain moksha .
Buddhist Rebirth There is no soul in Buddhism or Annata When this physical body is no more capable of functioning energies do not die with it but continue to take some othershape or form which we call another life Physical andmental energies which constitute the so called being have.
within themselves the power to take a new form and growgradually and gather force to the full from What the BuddhaTaught by Wapola Rahula Mizuko Kuyo is ancestor worship as well Tibetan sky burials.
Heaven paradise Some cultures see the human soul migrating away but only after a ritual Abrahamic religions use divine judgements to decide the fate of afterlife Heaven hell Jehovah s witnesses do not believe in hell 144 000 people will be anointed.
Ancient Egypt people s souls went to the kingdom of the dead Mummification required Ancient Greek people s souls attempted to travel to Hades buried withgold under their tongues Toraja Indonesia in film.
Rites of intensification Example land divingon Vanuatu island Rites de passage Van Gennep defined rites of passage as rites which accompany.
every change of place state social position and age Turner 1964 What is a state Why have rituals that move you from one state to another Separation Liminal Aggregation THE ADAPTIVE VALUE OF.
RELIGIOUS RITUALRichard Sosis 1992 Behavioral ecology What does it study If our species is designed to optimize the rate at which Sosi .
1992 pg 167 para 2 Religion facilitates cooperation but how do you coerce that while alsopreventing free riders By engaging in rituals people Trust through cost signals.
To differentiate a dishonest signal from an honest one you look forthe cost of the signal Sosi 1992 pg 168 para 5 Example the springbok How does this relate to costly religious behavior High costs for religious membership help deter free riders how pg .
169 para 3 4 Benefits of membership The groups who impose the the greatest demands on their memberselicit the highest levels of commitment and devotion What is happening to churches in the U S that don t require a lot of.
commitment for membership What about us Do we have any rituals that compare Do we lose anything for not having any RELIGIOUS.
Priests Prophets Shamans Hindu pujari Educated and vegetarian Responsible for Puja Ex Durga Puja.
Durga is the ultimate mother Goddess She is theaccumulation of Hindu God s radiance and wascreated to eliminate evil and suffering Durga means invincible in Sanskrit India is predominantly Hindu what about this.
country might make sense of this traditional role see Durga Puja ceremony Buddhist monk Preserve truths Provide living.
Act as a field of Live austere life Reach nirvanathrough themiddle way .
See Buddhist ordination ceremony West African priesthoods In medium scale societies we see a slightly differentkind of priesthood Turner 1972 pg 149 para 2 .
Ex Yoruba Babalawo and Iyalawo Divination through Ifa See Ifa ceremony How is a prophet different than a priest What does a prophet do in their community .
Where does their religious authority come from Charismatic authority The cult concept What is a cult What do you picture when you hear this word What role does the prophet play in a cult .
Jim Jones Peoples Temple dedicated to live for socialism total economic and racial and socialequality We are here living communally After a mass migration to Guayana communal requirements took a turn Jamestown was investigated and found to be in good.
Despitethis Jones delivered bad news to his followers David Koresh Branch Davidians Sect of the Seventh Day Adventists Millenarian.
How does this example differ from Jones South Pacific Cargo Cults General traits of a shaman Shamans tend to be found in small scale societies with minimal workspecialization Turner 1972 pg 147 148 .
They are part time practitioners Both men and women can be shamans Societies who have this role tend to have some of these generalfeatures Egalitarian society.
Loose gender roles alternative gender roles like the two spirit of N A Trust in individual and communal intuition dreams and experiences Dependence on nature Animistic religious concepts Shamans as schizophrenics .
At the core of schizophrenia Victor Tausk argued was a loss of ego boundaries that made it impossible for subjects to impose their willon reality or to form a coherent idea of the self Without a will of theirown it seemed to them that the thoughts and words of others werebeing forced into their heads and issued from their mouths and their.
bodies were manipulated like puppets subjected to tortures orarranged in mysterious postures These experiences made no rationalsense but those who suffered them were nevertheless subject towhat Tausk called the need for causality that is inherent in man They felt themselves at the mercy of malign external forces and their.
unconscious minds fashioned an explanation from the material tohand often with striking ingenuity Unable to impose meaning on theworld they became empty vessels for the cultural artefacts andassumptions that swirled around them Drug Use Neurotransmitters.
Hallucinogens like ayahuasca a brew of localplants in Peru that contains high levels of DMT dimethyltriptemine cause increased dopamineand seratonin Stoned Ape Theory Why would.
we have evolved these abilities Terrence McKenna proposed that the early consumption of magicmushrooms with psilocybin in them by Homo erectus was influential in ourevolution These became more common as forests shrank and populations followed the.
herds and dung of ungulate animals He argued that low doses increased acute vision and sexual arousal Highdoses would lower boundaries between human populations for communalbonding to take place and influence language development through visionsand music .
Loss of the ego until about 12 000 years ago Why are we so sensitive to just a small amount of hallucinogens History of religious drug use Marijuana is used in India and Africa for religiouspurposes Religious use dates back well beyond 2000.
Magic mushrooms date back to 6000 bce in Russia The Hindu soma was a sacrifice to the gods by drinkingmagic mushrooms The Zoroastrians used a similardrink haoma Haoma is considered to be divine like Mexican Indian cultures use peyote on an annual.
pilgrimage to heal and return to the source of life Peruvians use coca or cocaine as well as ayahuasca andsan pedro cactus Polynesian cultures drink the hallucinogen kava to havemeetings with the gods .
"A religion is a unified system of beliefs and practices relative to sacred things, that is to say, things set apart and forbidden -- beliefs and practices which unite into one single moral community called a Church, all those who adhere to them.” ... Ancient Greek people’s souls attempted to travel to Hades, buried with gold under their ...

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