ITAL 325: Dante’s Divine Comedy

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OLLI SpringSecond class Looking back to moveDante s life the possible Commentary traditionimpact of exile upon the.
writing of the poem Allegory writing aboutsomething by writingPoetic structure of the about something elseDivine ComedyBeginning in the middle.
of things in a dark forestThe unified will and thedivided willAnte Inferno theperiphery of Hell the.
cowards the lukewarm The sins of incontinenceand heresy Keywords centralRealism how characters seem real i e Farinata in.
Inf 10 how Dante makes the afterlife seem real Allegory understanding that when Dante sayssomething he might mean something else i e when Vergil covers Dante s eyes in Inf 9 61 63 Dante the poet vs Dante the character i e Inferno.
5 and his interaction with Francesca The relationship between the personal and theuniversal or the self as a citizen of a historical Look for by notingRealism important encounters with characters who speak.
or have a strong impression on Dante the pilgrim Encounters Danteworlds Dante the poet vs Dante the character when you think thatDante the character is changing how he reacts to the soulshe meets Allusions .
Allegory difficult obscure passages with flowery figurative language sometimes Significant Verses Danteworlds The relationship between the personal and the universal or the self as a citizen of a historical world when you think.
that Dante the poet is sending a message about what is right or wrong Allusions Sometimes understandingthe contrapasso can help you understand this Journey into the SelfDescent into hell as descent into the demons of the self.
Change must happen only after such a confrontation Lake of the heart Inf 1 21 recalls the myth ofDante s reactions sympathy empathy anger disdain all reflect his own personal investment in aparticular sin.
Vergil and Beatrice are the catalysts for changeHow do we define the selfhood of the pilgrim and of thesouls he encounters Dante the Poet vs Dante the Pilgrim.
How does Dante develop over the courseof the cantos read for today Does he progress or regress and what doesthat mean What are the ways in which Dante.
sympathizes with the souls heencounters What are the ways in which Dante showsdisdain for others Inferno 1 Beginning in.
the middle of thingsReading of Inferno 1 1 27 The now is the link of time as has been said for it connectspast and future time and it is a limit of time for it is thebeginning of the one and the end of the other Aristotle s.
Physics 4 13 journey of our life Inferno 1 1Leo Spitzer the possessive of human solidarity This is notjust Dante s journey this is OUR journey We can identifymore with it given the ambiguity of the prologue scene .
A journey in peril in the region of unlikeness regiodissimilitudinis Augustine The dark forestDante Convivio 4 25 Thus the adolescent who enters into theerroneous forest of this life would not know how to keep the right.
way if he were not guided by his elders selva erronea Proverbs 2 13 Who leave the right way and walk by dark ways 2 Peter 2 15 Leaving the right way that have gone astray Augustine s Confessions 7 10 in this forest so immense and fullof snares and dangers.
Plato s Timaeus the silva Platonis Synethesia mixing of senses Inferno 1 60 where the sun is Fear and the The three beasts The three beats.
John I 2 16 the concupiscence of the flesh the pride oflife and the concupiscence of the eyes cupidity greed and avarice Jeremiah 5 6 Wherefore a lion out of the wood hathslain them a wolf in the evening hath spoiled them a.
leopard watcheth for their cities every one that shall goout thence shall be taken because their transgressionsare multiplied their rebellions are strengthened Leopard Lion .
She wolf Vergil 70 19 BC Vergil lived during the timeof Julius Caesar Authored the Aeneid which.
was unfinished at the time ofhis death The Aeneid tells the story ofAeneas the fictive Roman In book 6 of the Aeneid .
Aeneas travels through theunderworld to seek hisfather s guidance His fatheris named Anchises Vergil was also thought by.
some individuals during themedieval period to The Veltro Inferno 1 100 111 The visitatio gratiae .
against fear Inf 2 88 90 Inferno 2 From adivided to an unified Inferno 2 32 I am not Aeneas I am not Paul 2 Corinthians 12 2 4 Paul heard secret words which it is not.
granted to man to utter in heaven Paul Christianity and specifically the Papacy Aeneas the Roman Empire Augustine says that the will cannot be divided not to turn andtoss this way and that a maimed and half divided will struggling .
with one part sinking as another rose Dante ends Inferno 2 with a unified will a single will fills bothof us you are my guide my governor my master vv 139 140 Pilgrim Sinners CirclesInf 2 45 your soul has been assailed by cowardice .
Inf 2 122 Why does your heart host so muchcowardice Inf 2 72 Love prompted me that Love which makes me o Inf 3 18 Those who have lost the good of the intellect .
The Gate of Hell Inf 3 1 9 example of anaphora Through me the way into the suffering city Through me the way to the eternal pain .
Through me the way that runs among the lost Justice urged on my high artificer My maker was divine authority The highest wisdom and the primal love Before me nothing but eternal things.
Were made and I endure eternally Abandon every hope who enter here A manuscript image of But becausethough art.
lukewarm andneither cold nor hot I will begin to vomitthee out of mymouth Revelation.
Inf 3 31 69 The cowardly This miserable way let us not talk of is taken by the them but look andsorry souls of those pass Inf 3 51 .
who lived withoutdisgrace andwithout praise Inf 3 35 36 The contrapasso.
The literary device of the contrapasso is theliteralization of a metaphor How is the contrapasso of the cowardly afitting punishment Who made the great refusal Inf 3 60 .
Celestine VPope from July 5 toDecember 13 1294Passed an edict for theright of popes to abdicate.
Imprisoned by PopeBoniface after hisresignationDied in 1296Preceding popes who have.
abdicated Pontian 235 Benedict IX 1045 andGregory VI 1046 Click icon to add picThe rivers of Hell .
Phlegython Monsters Charon Vergil Cerberus Vergil Phlegyas Vergil and Statius .
Furies and Medusa How Dante draws onthe AeneidFigure of Charon comes from Aeneid 6 298 304 384 416 but in the Aeneid the.
Sibyl presents the Golden Bough Non Trivial QuestionWhich English poet evokes Inf 3 57 whenhe writes I had not thought death hadundone so many .
Inferno 4 Circles 2 5 Sins ofincontinenceCircle 6 Sin of Structure.
Inferno 11While getting acclimated to thestench of Hell Vergil takes amoment to explain the structure ofhell Inf 11 16 .
Originates from Aristotle sNichomachaen Ethics incontinence mad bestiality and malice The three appetites of the will Incontinence concupiscent circles.
2 through 5 Mad bestiality irascible circle 7 Malice rational circles eight and Inferno 4 11 Majorencounters.
Inferno 4 Virtuous Pre and Non Christians Homer Horace Ovid Lucan and AristotleInferno 5 Lustful Minos Francesca da RiminiInferno 6 Gluttonous Cerberus CiaccoInferno 7 Avaricious and Prodigal Plutus .
Inferno 8 9 Wrathful and the Sullen Phlegyas Filippo ArgentiInferno 10 11 Heretics Farinata degli Uberti Cavalcante de Cavalcanti Inf 4 Limbo the First.
Circle 25 42 Lapidary verses for Inf 4 that without hope we live in desire Inf 4 42 so that I was sixth among such intellect .
Inf 4 102 I saw the master of those who know Inf 4 131 The First Circle Is this really hell .
Who dwells there pre Christian soulsunbaptized childrenworthy non Christian adults Epic catalogue.
1 Homer late 9th or 8th century BC author of theIliad and the Odyssey2 Horace 65 8 BC author of satirical poetry andthe Ars poetica3 Ovid 43 17 BC author of the Metamorphoses.
4 Lucan 39 65 AD author of the Pharsalia6 Dante Virtuous pagansActive Life Contemplative LifeElectra Lavinia Aristotle Thales Seneca.
Hector Brutus Socrate Anaxag EuclidAeneas Lucretia PtolemyPlato HeraclitJulius Julia us HippocrCaesar Democri ates.
Marcia tus DioscoriCamilla des GalenCornelia DiogenePenthesi s Orpheu Avicenlea Saladin s na.
King cles Cicero AverroLatinus ees Statue of Saladin Damascus The Saladin.
Muslim leader Salah ad Din 1137 93 bookends theDecameron as he appears in 1 3 and 10 9 He ruled over Egypt Syria Mesopotamia Hejaz and Yemen atthe height of his power Despite having led the Muslims against the Crusaders he was.
famed in the West for his generosity his military prowess andhis knowledge The combination of the first two qualities arecalled chivalry In Dante s Commedia the Saladin appears in the area of Limboreserved for virtuous pagans .
Just like Can Grande della Scala Decameron 1 7 he appears out of historical character here in this tale by Boccaccio Hewill not appear contrary to his historical reputation for chivalryin the tale 10 9 of the Decameron Near East at the Time of.
the Third Crusades The School of Athens Raphael 1506 Aristotle and Plato Inf 4 Classical Poets.
Inf 5 Paolo and Inf 6 Ciacco Inf 7 Avaricious and the Inf 8 Filippo Argenti Inf 10 Farinata degli.
Reading allegoricallyAt the Gate of Dis before the Medusa arrives Vergil insists that he place his hands over Dante shands which are covering the pilgrim s eyes Dante writes .
O you possessed of sturdy intellects observe the teaching that is hidden herebeneath the veil of verses so obscure Inf 9 61 63 Take a few moments to consider the message inbetween the lines of this passage What does.
Dante mean by these verses What is a commentary Writers began to comment upon or gloss the Comedy as early as the century in which hewas born The earliest commentators we.
believe were his sons Jacopo and Pietro butthey also include Pietro della Lana andCristoforo Landino whose commentary wascopied into several editions see upcomingWriting a commentary involves explaining or.
explicating the poem for readers It is theact of decoding the text or making it morecomprehensible for its readership It is thesame as paraphrasing Commenting upon a poem is not a passive or.
indifferent process Commentators are powerfulinsofar as their reading of the poem canpossibly distort the original meaning of the Allegory or why we need.
commentariesWe need commentaries for several reasons to understand historicalreferences for example but also because the Comedy is a lyric poemthat is meant to be ready as an allegory An allegory can be thought of as an extended metaphor It literally.
means to talk about something else allos Greek for other allogorien to talk about something else Take for example the following The plane soared into the sky like an eagle simile It soared an eagle into the sky metaphor context implies it is a plane .
The second sentence uses a symbol to describe the way that the planesoared into the sky We can infer through context that the author isdrawing a comparison to a plane This can also be thought of as an The art of exegesisReading allegorically was the original practice of the Church Fathers such as St .
Augustine in explicating Scripture This was especially true for the books of the OldTestament which were read allegorically to prefigure the events of the New Testament This is known as exegesis Dante himself provides an example his letter to Can Grande thanks Dante Psalm 114 113 in the Vulgate begins In exitu Israel de Aegypto When Israel went out of.
Egypt 2 46 8 Now if we look at the letter alone what is signified to us is the departure of the sons ofIsrael from Egypt during the time of Moses if at the allegory what is signified to us is ourredemption through Christ if at the moral sense what is signified to us is the conversion of.
Divine . Comedy. Commentary tradition. Allegory: writing about something by writing about something else. Beginning in the middle of things, in a dark forest. The unified . will . and the divided will. Ante-Inferno (the periphery of Hell): the . cowards (the lukewarm) The sins of incontinence and heresy

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