JXTA Technology

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On Securing NetworkedReal Time EmbeddedKang G ShinThe University of Michigan Real Time Embedded Everywhere .
Recent past DARPA and NSF Programs DARPA MoBIES NEST SEC SenseIT PECES PAC C QUORUM Embeddable Systems NSF Hybrid Embedded Systems Embedded Systems Devices.
Handheld devices telcomm PDAs palmtops smart sensorsand actuators military and industry Games and entertainment Smart cars homes buildings Embedded medical devices.
Ad hoc networks of sensors and actuators Bet is dot net Smart appliances and consumer electronics everywhere ataffordable prices HW and SW that let consumers and businesses exchange.
information via Wireless phones Digital TVs But these must be connectedand integrated.
Analogous to embrace andextend the Internet Two Main Components Consumers own operate end systems devices whichare seamlessly connected to the net .
End systems and network have been and will continue tobe developed independently But consumers apps want diverse QoS irrespective oftheir type and location Need QoS support for both end systems and network and their.
integration for e2e QoS QoS timeliness dependability security which are notindependent Type of End Systems Devices Gizmos and appliances cell phones palm PCs .
consumer electronics networked homeappliances Smart sensors and actuators At present largely best effort but growingneeds to support various types of.
QoS for voice video over IP WLANs distance learning netmeetings remote medicalservices multi party games entertainment .
Cost is a Major Issue Small memory embedded systems used everywhere automobiles factory automation and avionics home appliances.
Massive volumes 10K 10M units Saving even a few dollars per unitis important cheap low end and low power processors max 32 64 KB SRAM often on chip.
low cost networks e g Bluetooth 802 11 CAN Energy Is Also a Critical Resource Mobile handheld devices Satellite space and militarysystems with limited power budgets.
Physical and thermal limitations on Approaches Hardware Limit parallelism and speculative Improve circuit technology.
Software Perform fewer computations Improve algorithms and mechanisms OS for Small Embedded Systems Code size a few 10 kB and small RAM a few kB.
Must provide all basic OS services IPC tasksynchronization scheduling I O All aspects must be re engineered to suit small memoryembedded systems IPC synchronization and other OS mechanisms.
Task scheduling Networking Energy efficiencyE g OSEKWorks Lynx OS and EMERALDS aretypical examples Separation partitioni... kernel.
Separation KernelQuickTime and aTIFF Uncompressed decompressorare needed to see this picture Securing OS.
QuickTime and aTIFF Uncompressed decompressorare needed to see this picture QoS Assurance We know how to guarantee timeliness and.
achieve a certain level of fault tolerance on end systems and networks in isolation But their integration is still hard Adding fault tolerance and security makes itharder especially in view of heterogeneity of.
devices protocols envrionments and apps One fits all solution is unacceptable and stronginter dependencies exist among diff QoSdimensions need to make tradeoffs SecureEmbedded Systems.
Unlike the desktop software security policy ofpatch after failure embedded products mustcontinue operation in spite of securitythreats self securing and organizing Heterogeneity of embedded system.
architectures provides multiple attackopportunities and prevents the development ofan industry wide security protection scheme Specialized embedded secure storage siliconand coprocessors offload security authentication.
and encryption tasks to dedicated hardware What I d like to sketch next Protection of embedded app SW and dataunder untrusted OS Mobileworms.
Security of sensor networks PDAs and smart cell phones will containimportant privacy info on your credit cards bank accounts SSN passport and driver slicense personal contacts .
Smart devices e g cell phones rungames movies music Digital pirates crack OS of the embeddeddevice and have the willy OS collectpersonal info copy the copy righted.
OS UntrustedTrust relationshipsApp App App AppHierarchical e g Free for OS distrusts applications So do applications.
OS s omnipotence omniscience makes it hard to protectprivacy and copyrights of digital products Need a sound security model of untrusted OSes In what sense can applications not trust the OS Threat Model Software Privacy .
OS is malfunctioning OS tries to beApplicatioquality ofn abusing Observatiosystem Informatio.
service n App4 App1 App4code data code dataencrypted encrypted Meaning of untrusted OS.
OS s quality of service observation and tampering Privacy a process can conceal code data from others including malfunctioning willy OS How to Achieve Privacy App SWProtection from Untrusted OS .
Use a secure processor where memory contentis encrypted but existing secure processors areproblematic Complex restrictive and incomplete APIs These problems are due to.
Poor abstraction of OS Lack of analysis on a threat model Need a sound model and a definite solution Threat model as software privacy Solution should be complete.
Problems with Existing SPs What s wrong with the conventional secure processor Lack of simplicity and completeness e g no secure sharing Poor interface makes SW HW implementation difficult Irrelevance b w hardware copy tamper proof circuit and OS.
E g problems of XOM Lie SOSP 03 architecture Complex interface XOM architecture requires 14 instructions Original XOM had 8 but OS development required more Incompleteness no secure sharing.
Sharing memory between processes is essential in OS construction Shared memory shared library When process forks syscall and RPC argument passing Unclear protection model Physical or logical .
Hardware or software A Typical Secure ProcessorEncryptionEncryptionCache Hardware.
Main Memory Cryptographic hardware MMU secure processor Content of the main memory is encrypted Typically per process encryption A context switch requires special care.
Software Distribution ModelPublic keyencrypt using Distributor spurchaser s randomly chosenkey Software.
Public keyKp SymmetricSymmetric keymaster copyPrivate key.
Ks Kp KeyEncrypted Encryptedsoftware softwareContent deliveryCustomer Software distributor.
A customer who purchases software supplies Kp Ks Kp software image Ks is what he gets Processor decrypts Ks The owner doesn t know Kp A Possible Solutionkey page key file.
Machine stateInstructionsGrant Map AllocRevoke Unmap Free Privileged instructions and operating system.
data structure Secured data structure protected by Here Come Mobile Worms Proximity Scanning Use short range RF such as Bluetooth to discover targets in range.
Range of bluetooth 100m for Class 1 and 10m for Class 2 devices Recent incident of Cabir in Helsinki Olympic sports stadium Range of proximity scanning can be large e g stadium airport train bus station shopping mall hospital coffee shop Bluetooth Vulnerabilities.
Bluejacking Anonymous transmission of data to a nearby device Bluesnarfing Access to restricted data on a nearby device Bluebugging Modification of data serial AT access to launchapplication on a nearby device Here Come Mobile Worms cont d.
Passive Worms Set up a rogue WLAN AP for users free wireless Install Trojans and worms on vulnerable mobile devices Mobility Induced Propagation Infected cell phone or mobile device uses proximity scanning.
while moving across cells or WiFI hotspots Rate of propagation depends on proximity scanning range mobility pattern of infected device of devices in cells Each infected device moves around and infects others cascade Only the original device moves across the network initial .
Here Come Mobile Worms cont d Crossover Worms Are Already Here Propagate from wired to wireless or vice versa Wired to Wireless first generation attacks such as Timofonica Minuka Hacktool launches SMS DoS on targeted phones .
Wireless to Wired An attacker uses a mobile device to upload aregular scanning worm onto a wired host Cardtrap installs3 regular worms on a device s memory card Hard to trace back the original attacker Modeling and Containment Challenges.
Propagation Factors for Mobile Worms Viruses Connectivity diverse radio interfaces e g Bluetooth 802 11b WiFi GSM GPRS 3G OS Vulnerabilities Symbian Palm WinCE Windows Unix wired to wireless propagation .
Density of mobiles in a given network or in range Stadium Airport Univ Target Discovery SMS MMS Buddy Lists Bluetooth neighbor etc Mobility Patterns Agent based Malware Modeling AMM An Approach.
Each node is programmed as an individual agent with deviceattributes and service models Nodes Fixed Wired hosts routers access points base stations Mobile handsets cell phones laptops.
Special Application Servers verification and RL servers Flexible service composition SMS Bluetooth P2P IM Email etc Wired Segment Allows service level mitigation Mobility Models Random Waypoint Gauss Markov Challenges in Sensor Networks.
Harsh hostile unattendeddeploymentBattery powered non rechargeableA large number of nodes.
Self organizing healingNeed High Level Securitywith Limited Energy Budget Common ObjectivesLightweight Attack Tolerant.
To prolong network lifetime Gracefully tolerate attacksSymmetric key ciphers Self healing detect crypto hash functions identify attackersCooperative Energy aware FlexibleCollaboration Security.
Security energyCooperation amongsensors protocolsCompatible ScalableExisting security mechanisms To large network size.
Taxonomy of AttacksOutsider Non cryptographic Insider CryptographicData Attacks Reverse engineer reprogram programs Traffic replay modification injection.
Eavesdropping spoofing Re deploy compromised sensors Multiple fictitious IDs locations Radio Jamming AttacksService Disruption Attacks.
RoutingWormhole Attacks LocalizationPhysical Attacks Clock Synchronization.
Capture victimsSybil AttacksResource Consumption AttacksDenial of Service Attacks Attack Prevention Approach.
THREAT DEFENSE PROBLEM SOLUTIONAttack on Traffic Key Sharing SensorGroup based Globally compromises Eavesdropping Key Management.
Group based Traffic replay Re keying Pairwisemodification injection Combined.
Processing Pre deployment communicationDistributed Servicedisruption of keys overheads Key Sharing.
DoS Sybil Attack on Program H W TamperResistance Protection ofThe adversary can capture S W Tamper Proofing.
program itself reverse engineer Obfuscation via re program Result checking Defenseless Program Integrity Clone sensor Self decryption once broken Verificationdevice s Self checking.
Attack Tolerance ApproachSERVICE HOW SOLUTION Detect identify remove sources of attacksGeographicForwarding.
Distributed ProtocolTemporal Key Gracefully tolerate attacksSharing EstablishmentVerification for.
Localization IterativeOBJECTIVESExploit LocalizationSpatio TemporalClock Correlation Attack Tolerant.
Clock SynchSynchronization Protocol LiSP ArchitectureKey Intrusion ProgramManagement Detection Integrity.
Sharing probe monitor Verificationcrypto accesskey controlAttack Tolerant Core ServicesRouting Localization Clock Synch.
Security Energy Tradeoffs Secure Network LayerApplicationLocal Remotein network processing.
CommunicationsTransactions TransactionsInter Grouppacket by packetaggregation.
protectionGKMP DKS TKEPIntra GroupSource: www.chip-architect.com <- This is just a speculation Encryption Hardware PID L2 Cache CPU Key File Register File Main Memory Physical security perimeter Software master copy Encrypted software Symmetric key Ks Public key Kp+ {Ks}Kp+ Content delivery Key delivery Distributor’s randomly chosen key Encrypt using Ks Customer side Public ...

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