LITERARY DEVICES - Crestwood High School

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A story or short narrative designed toreveal allegorically some religiousprinciple moral lesson or general truth Rather than using abstract discussion aparable always teaches by comparison.
with real or literal occurrences especially homey everydayoccurrences a wide number of peoplecan relate to Examples The Prodigal Son and The.
Good Samaritan A statement that seems to contradict itself butreveals a deeper truth through its contradiction where there is no law there is no freedom John Locke .
Cowards die many times before their deaths Shakespeare s Julius Caesar And all men kill the thing they love Oscar Wilde s Ballad of Reading Gaol PARALLELLISM.
When the writer establishes similar patterns ofgrammatical structure and length for thepurpose of expressing ideas that are related orequal in importance King Alfred tried to make the law clear .
precise and equitable AS OPPOSED TO King Alfred tried to make clear laws that hadprecision and were equitable A mocking imitation of another work or type.
of literature Parody imitates the seriousmanner and characteristic features of aparticular literary work in order to make funof those same features Shakespeare s Sonnet 130 My.
mistress eyes are nothing like the sun Chaucer s Wife of Bath s Tale PASTORALA poem presenting shepherds in a simple rural existence It usually idealized.
shepherds lives in order to create an imageof peaceful and uncorrupted existence Moregenerally pastoral describes the simplicity charm and serenity attributed to countrylife or any literary convention that places.
kindly rural people in nature centeredactivities Popular with Renaissance The Passionate Shepherd to His Love byChristopher Marlowe PERSONAL ESSAY.
A type of informal essay A personal essayallows the writer to express individualviewpoints on subjects by reflecting onevents or incidents in his or her own life A Hanging by George Orwell.
A Laws of Life essay in which youexpress your personal belief in a drivingvalue of your life PERSONIFICATIONA figure of speech in which animals ideas and.
inanimate objects are given human character traits abilities or reactions emotions Here rests his head upon the lap of earth Love s not Time s fool though rosy lips andcheeks Within his bending sickle s compass.
hardship groaned around my heart Hunger tore at my sea weary soul PERSUASIONA technique used by writers and speakersto convince an audience to adopt a.
particular opinion perform an action orboth Persuasion often makes use oflogical emotional and ethical appeal Winston Churchill s speechesA letter you write to your parents to.
convince them you should be allowed to go PERSUASIVE ESSAYA piece of writing in which the writerattempts to convince readers to adopt aparticular view or perform a specific action .
Persuasive essays often present a series offacts reasons or examples to support theposition statement Of Studies by Sir Francis Bacon Of Marriage and Single Life by Sir Francis.
PERSUASIVE SPEECHA speech given to convince an audience toadopt a particular opinion perform anaction or both Persuasive speeches oftenmakes use of logical emotional and ethical.
appeal and can sometimes use loadedlanguage language that brings up strongconnotations for the audience Churchill s speechesHitler s speeches.
PETRARCHAN ITALIAN The Petrarchan sonnet has an eight line stanza called an octave followed by a six line stanza called a sestet The octave has two quatrainsrhyming abba abba the first of which presents.
the theme the second further develops it In the sestet the first three lines reflect on orexemplify the theme while the last three bringthe poem to a unified end The sestet may bearranged cdecde cdcdcd or cdedce .
Examples All of Francesco Petrarch s sonnetsThe sequence of actions and events in awork of fiction Most literary critics wouldagree that plot cannot exist withoutA genre of literature in which the.
arrangement of lines on the page create aform which when joined with content suggest meaning beyond the literalmeanings of the words Poetic forms Ballad elegy epic haiku .
narrative sonnet etc POINT OF VIEWThe way a story gets told and who tells it the method of narrating a short story novel narrative poem or work of.
nonfiction first personthird person omniscientthird person limited PRIMARY SOURCE.
A book document or person that providesoriginal first hand information about aLetters wills diaries recordings government records The Paston Letters.
Shakespeare s baptism record Abbreviation of property Any physical object that is used in a stageproduction In Macbeth Macbeth and Macduff s.
swords Banquo s torch the candle carriedby Lady MacbethAny material that is not written in a regularmeter like poetry Genres such as shortstories novels letters essays and.
treatises are typically written in prose Samuel Johnson s essays ElizabethGaskell s fiction Mary Shelley s gothicnovel T C Boyle s short stories PROTAGONIST.
The main character in a work on whom theauthor focuses most of the narrativeVictor Frankenstein QUATRAINA quatrain is a stanza of four lines often.
rhyming in an ABAB pattern Gather ye rosebuds while ye mayOld time is still a flyingAnd this same flower that smiles todayTomorrow will be dying.
Robert Herrick s To the Virgins to Make Much of Time Any artistic or literary portrayal of life in a faithful accurate manner unclouded by false ideals literaryconventions or misplaced aesthetic glorification and.
beautification of the world It is a theory or tendency inwriting to depict events in human life in a matter of fact straightforward manner Realism also refers to a literary movement in America Europe and England that developed in the nineteenth.
and twentieth centuries Charles Dickens portrayal of orphan life in Oliver TwistJames Joyce s short story Araby based on real lifeexperiences of his childhood in Dublin Ireland REPETITION.
A technique in which a sound word line orphrase is repeated for emphasis or effect Little Lamb who made thee Dost thou know who made thee Little Lamb I ll tell thee .
Little Lamb I ll tell thee William Blake s The Lamb The Tyger by William Blake Sonnet 43 by Elizabeth Barrett Browning RESOLUTION.
The outcome or result of a complexsituation or sequence of events anaftermath or resolution that usually occursnear the final stages of the plot thedenouement.
Victor s death and the Creature s discussionwith Robert Walton in Frankenstein Macbeth s death and Malcolm s speech torestore order in the kingdomA matching similarity of sounds in two or.
more words especially when their accentedvowels and all succeeding consonants areidentical skating datingemotion demotion.
fascinate deracinateplain stain RHYME SCHEMEThe pattern of rhyme The traditional way to markthese patterns of rhyme is to assign a letter of the.
alphabet to each rhyming sound at the end of each line The glories of our blood and state AAre shadows not substantial things BThere is no armor against fate ADeath lays his icy hand on kings B.
Scepter and crown CMust tumble down CAnd in the dust be equal made DWith the poor crooked scythe and spade DFrom Of Death .
By James ShirleyThe pattern of stressed and unstressedsyllables in poetry This pattern is usually notated by markingthe meter of the line putting a diagonal line.
or a macron over stressedsyllables A small curving loop or asmall x x goes over the unstressedsyllables This process is called scansion The c rfew t lls the kn ll of p rting d y .
RISING ACTIONThe action in a play or work of fiction thathappens just before the climax During therising action complications arise for themain characters that make the conflict more.
difficult to resolve Portion B CAny imaginative adventure concerned withnoble heroes gallant love a chivalric codeof honor daring deeds and supernatural.
events often contain faraway settings andidealize heroes Le Morte d Arthur by Thomas Mallory A Knight s Tale by Geoffrey Chaucer ROMANTICISM.
A literary movement of the 19th century thatemphasized nature an idealized past imagination and the celebration of theindividual Romanticism rejected the earlierphilosophy of the Enlighten ment which.
stressed that logic and reason were the bestresponse humans had in the face of cruelty Instead Romantics emphasized emotion andnatural passions as a means of knowing anda reliable guide to ethics and living .
Lyrical Ballads by William Wordsworth andSamuel Taylor ColeridgeA type of verbal irony saying one thing thatsounds complimentary but meaning thestatement as an insult or criticism.
You have clearly proved that ignorance idleness and vice are the properingredients for qualifying a legislator From Gulliver s TravelsBy Jonathan Swift.
When a writer uses humor to point out theflaws of society by ridiculing a person idea custom behavior institution or class inChaucer s mocking of the clergy in themedieval church.
Dave Barry s Year in Review that providesa humorous overview of the past year SCRIPTURELiterature that is considered sacred and isused in religious rituals of worship .
celebration and mourning The Lord is my shepherd I shall notwant To every thing there is a season and atime to every purpose under the heaven .
EcclesiastesAny six line stanza or a six line unit of poetry the last part of an Italian or Petrarchan sonnet consisting of six lines that rhyme with avarying pattern .
Thy soul was like a Star and dwelt apartThou hadst a voice whose sound was like thesea Pure as the naked heavens majestic free So didst thou travel on life s common way In cheerful godliness and yet thy heart.
The lowliest duties on herself did lay WordsworthThe general locale historical time and socialcircumstances in which the action of afictional or dramatic work occurs the.
particular physical location in which it takesLondon Scrooge s past present and futurein A Christmas Carol the arctic GenevaSwitzerland and Victor s lab inFrankenstein Sweden Denmark and Herot.
in Beowulf Scotland during the Anglo Saxonand early Medieval period in Macbeth SHAKESPEAREAN ENGLISH A poem made up of 14 lines in the form of three quatrains and a final.
couplet Its rhyme scheme is abab cdcd efef ggThat time of year thou mayst in me behold When yellow leaves or none or few do hangUpon those boughs which shake against the cold Bare ruined choirs where late the sweet birds sang.
In me thou seest the twilight of such day As after sunset fadeth in the west Which by and by black night doth take away Death s second self that seals up all in rest In me thou seest the glowing of such fire .
That on the ashes of his youth doth lie As the deathbed whereon it must expire Consumed by that which it was nourished by This thou perceivest which makes thy love more strong To love that well which thou must leave ere long .
SHORT STORYA brief prose tale that can be read in onesitting usually plot functions as the driving The Lottery by Shirley Jackson The Rocking Horse Winner by D H .
The Machine Stops by E M ForsterA type of figurative language that makes acomparison between two things using thewords like or as The world s honor ages and shrinks bent.
like the men who mold it as a peacock with many feathers foldsits feathers so she subsided and shutherself as she sank down in the leatherarmchair .
SITUATIONAL IRONYWhen a character or the reader expects onething to happen but something else happensIn O Henry s The Gift of the Magi the wife cutsoff and sells her beautiful long hair to a wig .
maker for money to buy a chain for herhusband s heirloom pocket watch Meanwhile the husband sells his heirloom watch to buy hiswife pretty combs for her long and beautiful hair SLANT RHYME.
Also called inexact rhyme or approximaterhyme slant rhymes are rhymes createdout of words with similar but not identicalsounds In most of these instances eitherthe vowel segments are different while the.
PERSONIFICATION. A figure of speech in which animals, ideas, and inanimate objects are given ... haiku, narrative, sonnet, etc. POINT OF VIEW. The way a story gets told and who tells it; the method of narrating a short story, novel, narrative poem, or work of ... onomatopoeia “fastened those claws / In his fists till they cracked, clutched ...

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