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Figurative language and types of poems Figurative language A form of language use in which writers andspeakers convey something other than the literalmeaning of their words . Examples Hyperbole exaggeration Simile metaphor. Literal language A form of language in which writers andspeakers mean exactly what their words When you say that is cold you mean itis cold in temperature . The comedian died on the stage literal meaning he actually died A grouping of lines separated from others in a The stanza is like a prose paragraph An object or action in a literary work that.means more than itself that stands forsomething beyond itself A rose for example has long been considereda symbol of love and affection an author s use of vivid and descriptive.language to add depth to their work Examples He fumed and charged like an angry bull He fell down like an old tree falling down in a He felt like the flowers were waving him a. The eerie silence was shattered by her Connotation a word that goes beyond its dictionarymeaning The emotional meaning Denotation. is the literal meaning the dictionarymeaning of a word The rhythmical pattern of stressed and unstressedsyllables in verse The audible pattern of accent or stress in lines of.verse In the following lines from Same in Blues by Langston Hughes the accented words andsyllables are underlined I said to my baby Baby take it slow .Lulu said to LeonardI want a diamond ringAnother example is Edgar Allen Poe s the Bells The Bellsin the rhythm of Ms Jefferis high school choir . Hear the sledges with the bells Silver bells Silver bells What a world of merriment their melody foretells How they tinkle tinkle tinkle In the icy air of night .While the stars that over sprinkleAll the heavens seem to twinkleWith a crystalline delight Keeping time time time In a sort of Runic rhyme .To the tintinnabulation that so musically wellsFrom the bells bells bells bells Bells bells bells From the jingling and the tinkling of the bells The matching of final vowel or consonant sounds in two or more words . The following stanza of Richard Cory employs alternate rhyme with thethird line rhyming with the first and the fourth with the second Whenever Richard Cory went down town We people on the pavement looked at him He was a gentleman from sole to crown.Clean favored and imperially slim A rhyme scheme is usually the pattern of end rhymes in a stanza witheach rhyme encoded by a letter of the alphabet from a onward ABBA BCCB for example Rhymes are classified by the degree ofsimilarity between sounds within words and by their placement.within the lines or stanzas End rhyme the most common type is the rhyming of thefinal syllables of a line See Midstairs byVirginia Hamilton Adair .And here on this turning of the stairBetween passion and doubt I pause and say a double prayer One for you and one for you And so they cancel out . Internal rhyme is rhyme within a single line of verse When a wordfrom the middle of a line is rhymed with a word atthe end of the line I had a cat who wore a hat. He looked cool but felt the fool Edgar Allen Poe The Raven Once upon a midnight dreary while I pondered weak Allusion A brief reference to a historical mythic or literary.person place event or movement I was surprised his nose was not growinglike Pinocchio s This refers to the story ofPinocchio where his nose grew wheneverhe told a lie It is from The Adventures of.Pinocchio written by Carlo Collodi Heading down the rabbit hole is an allusion toAlice in Wonderland by Lewis Carroll Alliteration the deliberate repetition of consonant sounds. Alliteration does not need to be every word in theline nor the same letter I keep the cat in a cage We saw the sea sound sing we heard the saltsheet tell from Dylan Thomas s Lie Still SleepBecalmed . Tongue twisters are alliterated Amy Always answers abruptly Consonance Is a type of alliteration The repetitive sounds producedby consonants within a sentence or phrase It does not.have to be at the start of the word T was later when the summer went by Emily Dickson T was later when the summer wentThan when the cricket came And yet we knew that gentle clock.Meant nought but going home T was sooner when the cricket wentThan when the winter came Yet that pathetic pendulumKeeps esoteric time . The M sound is repeated Assonance The repetition of similar vowel sounds in asentence or a line of poetry or prose I rose and told him of my woe . Whitman s When I Heard the Learn d Astronomer How soon unaccountable I became tired and sick Till rising and gliding out I wander d off by myself Hyperbole A figure of speech involving exaggeration . I am so hungry I could eat a horse I have a million things to do I had a ton of homework I m so hungry I could eat a horse Personification. A figure of speech in which the poet describes athing or a nonhuman form as if it were a person An example The yellow leaves flaunted theircolor gaily in the breeze Wordsworth s Iwandered lonely as a cloud includes.personification The movie cars and planes use personification A contrast between what is said and what is meantor a contrast between what happens and what isexpected to happen in life and in literature . The Rime of the Ancient Mariner by Water water everywhere And all the boards did shrink Water water everywhere Nor any drop to drink . Onomatopoeia The use of words to imitate the sounds they choo choo Most often refers to words and groups of words such as Tennyson s description of the murmur of.innumerable bees which attempts to capture thesound of a swarm of bees buzzing Metaphor A comparison between essentially unlike thingswithout an explicitly comparative word such as like. An example is My love is a red red rose Oxymoron A figure of speech that brings togethercontradictory words for effect jumbo shrimp. deafening silence A comparison made with as like or than In A Red Red Rose Robert Burns declares O my Love is like a red red roseThat s newly sprung in June .O my Love is like the melodyThat s sweetly played in tune Love is being compared to a rose and a melody is a form of word play that suggests two or moremeanings by exploiting multiple meanings of.words or of similar sounding words for anintended humorous or rhetorical effect I went to a seafood disco last week and pulled I work as a baker because I knead dough Sir Lancelot once had a very bad dream about.his horse It was a knight mare Palindrome A word phrase or sentence that reads thesame backward and forward A man a plan a canal Panama. The reversal can be word by word as well as in fall leaves when leaves fall A pair of rhymed lines that may or may notconstitute a separate stanza in a poem Shakespeare s sonnets end in rhymed.couplets as in For thy sweet loveremembered such wealth brings That then Iscorn to change my state with kings A Japanese verse form of three unrhyming lines in five seven and five syllables It creates a single memorable.image as in these lines by Kobayashi Issa translated byJane Hirshfield On a branchfloating downrivera cricket singing . In translating from Japanese to English Hirshfieldcompresses the number of syllables Limerick A humorous poem of five lines rhyming A Clumsy Young Fellow Named Tim.There once was a fellow named Tim A whose dad never taught him to swim A He fell off a dock B and sunk like a rock B And that was the end of him A . Lyric poem A type of poem characterized by the expression of The anonymous Western Wind Western wind when will thou blow The small rain down can rain .Christ if my love were in my armsAnd I in my bed again It expresses the feeling of the wind A long stately poem in stanzas of variedlength meter and form Usually a serious.poem on an exalted subject Horace s Eheu fugaces but sometimes a more lighthearted work suchas Neruda s Ode to My Socks A humorous mocking imitation of a literary.work sometimes sarcastic but often playful andeven respectful in its playful imitation Quatrain A four line stanza rhyming in a pattern like ABAC ABCB ABBA AABA. AABA the stanza of Robert Frost s Stopping by Woods on a Snowy Evening Whose woods these are I think I know AHis house is in the village though AHe will not see me stopping here B.To watch his woods fill up with snow A A lyric poem that laments the dead A long narrative poem that records theadventures of a hero Epics typically chroniclethe origins of a civilization and embody its.central values Free verse non rhyming lines that closely follow thenatural rhythms of speech A regular patternof sound or rhythm may emerge in free verse.lines but the poet does not plan it in theircomposition Blank verse A unrhymed line of poetry or prose A popular narrative song passed down orally .In the English tradition it usually follows aform of rhymed abcb quatrains alternatingfour stress and three stress lines Folk ortraditional ballads are anonymous andrecount tragic comic or heroic stories with.emphasis on a central dramatic event Concrete poetry Verse that emphasizes physical elements such asa typeface that creates a visual image of the A 14 line poem with a variable rhyme scheme.originating in Italy and then to England in the 16thcentury Literally a little song the sonnet traditionallyreflects upon a single sentiment with a clarification or turn of thought in its concluding lines The Shakespearean or English sonnet is arranged as.three quatrains and a final couplet rhyming abab cdcdefef gg The Petrarchan or Italian sonnet divides intotwo parts an eight line octave and a six line sestet rhyming abba abba cde cde or abba abba cd cd cd The implied attitude of a writer toward the subject.and characters of a work A 14-line poem with a variable rhyme scheme originating in Italy and then to England in the 16th century. Literally a â€œlittle song,â€ the sonnet traditionally reflects upon a single sentiment, with a clarification or â€œturnâ€ of thought in its concluding lines.