Making Sense of Organizational Change

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Public Policies andSense Making inHigher EducationInstitutionsName Roy Chan.
Instructor Anatoly Oleksiyenko Ph D Date January 24 2011E mail rychan hku hk rychan uci eduHomepage http www rychan com Culture does not change because we desire to.
change it Culture changes when the organizationis transformed the culture reflects the realities ofpeople working together every day Frances HasselbeinPresident of Leader of Leader Institute.
Weick Karl 2001 Making Sense inOrganizations Found in Chapter 2 Sources of Order inUnderorganized Systems Themesin Recent Organizational Theory .
New York Blackwell Business Professor Karl E Weick Rensis LikertDistinguished UniversityProfessor of.
Organizational Behaviorand Psychology at theRoss School of Businessat the University ofMichigan Ann Arbor .
Earned his Ph D inOrganizational Psychologyfrom Ohio State University Originally from Warsaw Coined the term loose.
coupling mindfulness and sensemakng Topics Key Words 1 Loose Coupling 2 Rationality Assumptions.
3 Ambiguity 4 Variability 5 Sensemaking 6 Action vs Deliberation 7 Connections.
8 Mindfulness WHAT IS AN ORGANIZATION What is an organization March and Olsen 1976 definesorganizations as a set of procedures for.
augmentation and imprecation p 25 What is an organization Weick 2001 identify organization as asystem of chains divided into four areas 1 individual action 2 organization action 3 .
environmental response and 4 individualbeliefs p 41 What is an organization Organizations may be anarchies but they areorganized anarchies they may be loosely.
coupled but they are loosely coupledsystems Weick 2001 34 Leaders can break many organizations intolargely self functioning subsystems butloose coupling is really the glue that holds.
them together WHAT IS LOOSE COUPLING What is Loose Coupling Loose Coupling is a metaphor that KarlWeick develop to help leaders better.
understand organizations and connectionsthat are either marginalized ignored orsuppressed In general understanding an organization asa loose coupling can help us better explain.
how organizations adapt to theirenvironments and survive in uncertainties What is Loose Coupling Because Actors in loosely coupled systemare often isolated find social comparison.
difficult have no one to borrow from seldomimitate suffer pluralistic ignorance maintaindiscretion improvise and have less hubrisbecause they know the universe is notconnected to make widespread change .
SIX Themes of what organizations are like 1 There is a less rationality than meets the eye 2 Organizations are segmented rather thanmonolithic 3 Stable segments in organizations are quite small.
4 Connections among segments have variable 5 Connections of variable strength produce ambiguity 6 Connections of constant strength reduce ambiguity Weick 2001 34 Every organization must be prepared to abandon everything it.
does to survive in the future Peter Drucker The Father Of Modern Management1 THERE IS A LESSRATIONALITY THAN MEETS 1 There is a less rationality.
than meets the eye What is rationality Weick 2001 divides rationality into three components 1 Set of prescriptions that change as the issuechange 2 As a fa ade created to attract resources.
and legitimacy and 3 As a postaction process used toinvest reasons of action p 35 He believes that rationality are rare in organizations 1 There is a less rationalitythan meets the eye.
What is rationality Pfeffer 1981 suggests that organizations userationality as a fa ade when they talk aboutgoals planning intentions and analysis toensure flow of resources in the organization p .
Professor Jeffrey Pfeffer Thomas D Dee IIProfessor ofOrganizational Behaviorat the Graduate School.
of Business StanfordUniversity Earned his Ph D inOrganizational Psychologyfrom Stanford University.
Considered as one ofthe most influentialmanagement thinkers 1 There is a less rationalitythan meets the eye.
What is rationality Westerlund and Sjostrand 1979 identifiesrationality as a horrific label given to theindividual or group acting in the manner theevaluator wishes p 91 .
1 There is a less rationalitythan meets the eye What is rationality Dyckman 1981 suggests that there are threetypes of rationale 1 contextual rationale 2 .
process rationale and 3 calculation rationale Professor Thomas R Dyckman Ann Whitney ProfessorEmeritus of Accountingat the Samuel Curtis.
Johnson GraduateSchool of Managementat Cornell University Earned his Ph D fromthe University of.
Recipient of the 1978American AccountingAssociation sOutstanding Educator 1 There is a less rationality.
than meets the eye What is rationality Staw 1980 illustrates that rationality is usedby new theorist as a post hoc rationality devicein which organizations justify their actions with.
threats problems success or opportunities p Professor Barry Staw Lorraine Tyson MitchellChair and Professor ofLeadership and.
Communication at theHass School of Businessat the University ofCalifornia Berkeley Earned his Ph D in.
OrganizationalPsychology fromNorthwestern University Founder of the Researchin Organizational.
1 There is a less rationalitythan meets the eye Therefore Starbuck 1983 believes thatrationality is an action An action is seen as aresponse to a threat Organizations justify their.
actions with threats problems success oropportunities p 94 Professor William H Starbuck Professor in Residenceat the Lundquist College.
of Business at theUniversity of Oregon andProfessor Emeritus atNew York University Earned his Ph D from.
the Carneige Institute ofTechnology Published more than150 articles since 1958 2 ORGANIZATIONS ARE.
SEGMENTED RATHER THANMONOLITHIC In organizations real power and energy is generated throughrelationships The patterns of relationships and the capacities toform them are more important than tasks functions roles and.
positions Margaret Wheatley writer and management consultant 2 Organizations are segmentedrather than monolithic No organizations is monolithic rather .
organizations are unified actors operatingin more homogenous environments Weick 2001 37 Organizations relies heavily ondeliberation in order to avoid risks of.
being judged too impulsive erratic orunpredictable Weick 2001 37 2 Organizations are segmentedrather than monolithic March and Olsen 1976 believes that people.
normally exaggerate the orderliness oforganizations through bias Bias involvesassumptions about reality intention and necessity Professor James G March Professor Johan P Olsen Jack Steele Parker.
Professor in PoliticalProfessor of International Science and Director ofManagement Emeritus at Research at the CentreStanford University for European Studies Graduate School of University of Oslo.
2 Organizations are segmentedrather than monolithic Additionally universities act likeorganizations because lower levelsegments act like top management .
Questions of author legitimacy andinsubordination are found in bothuniversities and organizations Moreover both are loosely coupled and are primarilydelegated to groups rather than individuals.
Weick 2001 39 2 Organizations are segmentedrather than monolithicIn schools today teachers often give studentsall kinds of tasks responsibilities and.
actions as a way to loosen the teacher student relationship Weick 2001 Weick 2001 believes that many teachers aretreating students as them working in anorganization than the school or a school p .
One of the things I learned when I was negotiating was that until Ichanged myself I could not change others Nelson Mandela 1918 Nobel prize winner South Africanstatesman and President since 19943 STABLE SEGMENTS IN.
ORGANIZATIONS ARE QUITE 3 Stable segments inorganizations are quite small Small organizations are necessarily notdisorderly rather small organizations find.
more coherence than large organizations When organizations become larger thereorderliness predictability and sensiblenessdecline Weick 2001 41 Small organizations may be better than.
large organizations 3 Stable segments inorganizations are quite small In large organizations people have limitedthinking capacity managers do little.
reading and managers can work for aboutnine minutes before they are interrupted Weick 2001 40 Many people in large organizations find itdifficult to maintain more than ten solid.
relationships Weick 2001 40 Leadership is not about changing the mindset of a group but inthe cultivation of an environment that brings out the best andinspires the individuals in that group Arthur F Carmazzi author and international speaker on.
leadership4 CONNECTIONS AMONGSEGMENTS HAVE VARIABLE 4 Connections among segmentshave variable strengths.
Weick 2001 believes that longer chainswith larger connections are more looserthan shorter chains p 41 Organization with connections amongsegments typically have a variety of.
4 Connections among segmentshave variable strengths There are four features that affectorganization strength of connection 1 Rules 2 Agreement on rules 3 Feedback .
and 4 Attention Weick 2001 42 It is important to note that mostorganizational segments contain a mixtureof both tightness and looseness Anorganization cannot be entirely tight or.
entirely loose Weick 2001 43 5 CONNECTIONS OFVARIABLE STRENGTHPRODUCE AMBIGUITY I used to think that running an organization was equivalent to.
conducting a symphony orchestra But I don t think that s quite it it s more like jazz There is more improvisation Warren Bennis 5 Connections of variablestrength produce ambiguity What is ambiguity .
According to Weick 2001 he sees ambiguityslows down communication feedback creates more learning difficulty andincrease the number of people giving upand quitting It is normally found in.
changing complex environments non routine tasks and networks with denseinterdependencies p 44 5 Connections of variablestrength produce ambiguity.
What is ambiguity Organizations dislike ambiguity determination delegation anddifferentiation because each one isassociated with loose connections which is.
a form of ambiguity Weick 2001 44 Loose connections are a source ofambiguity 1 Nature of problem 2 Information.
3 Multiple Interpretations 4 Different Value Orientations 5 Unclear Goals 6 Lack of Time and MoneyWeick 2001 .
7 Contradictions and Paradoxhighlights twelve 8 Responsibilities Uncleardifferent 9 Success Measures Lackingcharacteristics 10 Poor Cause Effectof ambiguity Relationships.
11 Symbols and Metaphors 12 Decision Making Fluid Weick 2001 45 6 CONNECTIONS OFCONSTANT STRENGTH.
REDUCE AMBIGUITY As we the leaders deal with tomorrow our task is to createorganizations that are sufficiently flexible and versatile that theycan take our imperfect plans and make them work in execution That is the essential character of the learning organization .
Gordon R Sullivan Michael V Harper 6 Connections of constantstrength reduce ambiguity The best way to reduce ambiguity is to actas if loosely coupled events are tied in a.
cause map Weick 2001 48 Cause maps create some order 6 Connections of constantstrength reduce ambiguity Connections of constant strength can be.
stabilized by action Action can simplify environments can makeenvironments more orderly can createlinkage and can construct feedback p 50 Comparison between Loosely.
Coupled and Tightly Coupled A new leader has to be able to change an organization that is dreamless soullessand visionless someone s got to make a wake up call Warren Bennis American scholar and organizational consultant CONCLUSION SUMMARY.
Conclusion Summary Loosely coupled systems probably areeasier to coordinate but are very difficult tosystematically change Understanding an organization as a loose.
Dyckman (1981) suggests that there are three types of rationale: 1) contextual-rationale, 2) process rationale, and 3) calculation rationale (p. 35). Professor Thomas R. Dyckman Ann Whitney Professor Emeritus of Accounting at the Samuel Curtis Johnson Graduate School of Management at Cornell University

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