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Modern PhysicsOptional Amazing 2 hour videohttps www youtube com watch v ... Nuclear Fission Does not occur naturally It is a man made.
phenomenon It is a process in which large nuclei aredeliberately split into smaller nuclei with therelease of a tremendous amount of energy We use the energy from nuclear fission to.
power nuclear reactors We also use it innuclear weapons Electricity is also made by Nuclear Physics Studies the atomic nuclei and subatomic particlesand their interactions.
with varied applications including nuclear energy Quantum Mechanics Fundamental theory of nature at a small scale andthe low energy levels of atoms and subatomicparticles .
Without Quantum Mechanicswe would not have no transistor and hence no personal computer or digitalcameras or digital anything.
Transistor radios no laser and hence no Blu ray players Laser tools or laser toys Laser remotes key fobs garage openers.
Review the Atom to Leap Forward Protons are positively charged particle in the nucleuswith neutrally charged neutrons Electrons are negatively charged and are 1 1000 thesize of a proton and exist in discrete energy level.
shells about the nucleus At least 12 more subatomic fundamental particlesdivided into quarks which make up protons and neutrons and leptons .
Nuetrinos not to be confused with neutrons no charge andwatch this 1 minute video on Nuetrinos https www youtube com watch v ... Negative muons and tau Antiparticles Watch this 4 minute Bozeman video.
Write at least half a page of notes https www youtube com watch v ... antiparticles Each particle has an associated antiparticle withthe same mass and opposite charge.
Particle antiparticleElectron positron or called antielectronneutrino no charge antineutrino no charge Antiparticles are produced naturally in betadecay and elsewhere creating a natural balance.
of matter and antimatter Isotopes Same number of protons as its correspondingelement but different number of neutronsresulting in a different mass .
Some forms of Carbon have 7 or 8 neutronsresulting in a mass of 13 or 14 protons neutrons mass of electronsCarbon 12 6 6 12 6Most common.
Carbon 13 6 7 13 6Carbon 14 6 8 14 6 Isotopes Notation Hyphen Notation Element name atomic mass of isotope.
example Carbon has 6 protons 6 neutrons so Carbon has anatomic mass of 12 6 6 12 Carbon can also have 7 neutrons So this isotope of Carbon has an atomic mass of 13 Example Carbon 12 Example C 12.
Example Carbon 13 Example C 13 Z Notation Forces that act on a Nucleus Watch this 4 minute Bozeman video.
Take half a page of notes https www youtube com watch v ... Forces Act on Isotopes Electrostatic Electromagnetic Forces Fe Forces between the charges that are.
repulsive if they are like charges attractive if they are different charges larger in a nucleus so larger arrowsDraw the Fe of Be 10 Forces Act on Isotopes.
Gravitational Forces Fg This attractive force exists between any twomasses in the universeProtons have a mass so they have agravitational force.
Small forces so small arrows Forces Act on IsotopesNuclear Forces Fn Explained more with Nuclear Decay Strong nuclear forces provides the stability for the.
nucleus of stable isotopes Isotopes can not become too large because the strongnuclear force is only effective when the particles areclose together makes up the difference between the electrostatic.
and gravitational forces of a stable isotopeFe Fn Fg Fn Do unbalanced forces exist Unbalanced forces would cause the nucleus to explodeor implode.
Each different force should be equal and oppositeforces to counterbalance the other forces Fe should cause the protons to repel but the equaland opposite Strong Fn holds the nucleus together Fg is too week to hold a nucleus together so the.
Strong Fn is needed to hold the nucleus togetherFe Fn Fg Fn Fission and Fusion Watch this 5 minute video https www youtube com watch v ... .
Take at least page of notes Nuclear PhysicsFission and FusionNuclear energy is produced in two different ways Fission Large nuclei are split to release energy .
Is how we get a lot of our energy from Nuclear Fission Reactors 1 source of energy fossil fuels coal 2 source of energy nuclear fission memory aid i in Fission i fall to pieces Fusion Small nuclei are combined to release energy Clean energy transformation Currently not feasible.
memory aid u in Fusion u in Sun Fusion is the combination of 1 or more like FuzeDrinks combine several flavors Watch this 3 min video about a boy that built a Fusion reactor Write 2 important details from this video https www ted com talks taylor... .
To start a fission reaction A heavy nucleus such as that of Uranium isbombarded with a neutron which makes itunstable so it spits When the uranium nucleus splits it releases a.
large amount of energy and two neutrons Which in turn bombard two more nuclei withthe same results producing more energy annow 4 neutrons and so on and so on Draw and explain this image.
in your notes A self sustaining series of nuclear fissions iscalled a Chain Reaction In a nuclear reactor water absorbs the energyfrom the chain reaction .
The water turns to steam AND The steam is used to turn generators that inturn produce electricity In a nuclear bomb the chain reaction is notstopped and a nuclear explosion results .
2nd most common source 65 of Americasenergy supply Second to fossil fuels Nuclear Fusion occurs naturally throughout the universe in stars such asour sun The heat and light produced by the sun is a.
result of the fusion of hydrogen atoms our sun is a nuclear fusion furnace that producestremendous amounts of energy It results from the fusing of small atomic nuclei into larger Nuclei are all positively charged and usually repel each.
other It requires the sun s 1 million degrees plustemperatures to get the nuclei moving fast enough tofuse together not feasible yet as a cost effective and safe energysource See Taylor Wilson video.
Draw and explain these imagesin your notes Mass Energy EquivalenceEinstein s elegant equation Mass and energy are related by what is.
certainly the best known equation in physics E is the energy equivalent called massenergy of mass m and c is the speed of light 3 x 108 m s Equation explains why atoms have less mass.
than their subatomic particles Write this example in your notesExample 1 What is the energy equivalent of 1kilogram of matter c 3 x 108 m s.
E I kg 3 x 108 2E I kg 9 x 1016 m2 s2 E 9 x 1016 J Try this example in your notesExample 2 What mass of matter is required to.
supply 1 96 x 1022J of Energy per hour Check your answerExample 2 What mass of matter is required tosupply 1 96 x 1022J of Energy per hour E 1 96 x 1022J.
c 3 x 108 m s1 96 x 1022 Nuclear Stability Not all nuclei are given to reaction Stable nuclei are not radioactive.
Unstable nuclei have the tendency of emittingsome kind of radiation they are radioactive The neutron to proton n p ratio is thedominant factor in nuclear stability For low atomic numbers stability occurs at a ratio.
very close to 1 As atomic number increases the ratio increases The heaviest stable isotope is Bi 209 n p 1 518 Drug Half LifeIs the period of time.
required for theconcentration of adrug or amount ofthat drug in a body tobe reduced by one.
Watch this 2 minute video and write 5 sentences of notes https www youtube com watch v ... Considerations of Half Life in Medicine Medications that are necessary at high dosagesfor a short period of time then breakdown.
quickly so the medication does not poison thepatient cancer treatment Half life of days with a recovery period so patienceare ready for the next dose within the same month Medications that are necessary at low.
continual levels given regularly and rarely overa long period Given once every 5 years may have a half life ofabout 5 years Types of Radiation Particles.
Alpha Particle 2 or He2 Heavy and large stopped by paper Beta Particle or Can be stopped by a sheet of aluminum foil Gamma Radiation .
very high frequency EM radiation photons energy Biologically hazardous can only be stopped by thicklead or very thick concrete Alpha Particle or He 2 2 nuclear decay that emits alpha particles 2p 2n0 .
Begins with an unstable radioactive atom Produces Alpha particles are basically a heliumnucleus made of 2 protons and 2 neutrons Alpha particles are relatively heavy low energy and A piece of paper or clothing will stop alpha radiation .
Beta Particle or nuclear decay that emits beta particles Beta particle are high energy electrons They can penetrate paper and cloth but areeasily stopped by a sheet of aluminum foil or a.
wooden door Starts with a Neutron Undergoes a reaction changing the neutroninto a proton an electron and an antineutrinodue to a weak nuclear force .
Gamma Radiation Does not emit particles Instead this type ofdecay emits gamma rays Gamma rays are extremely dangerous highenergy waves .
They easily penetrate most all matter but canbe stopped by a thick layer of lead Not surprising since gamma radiation is awave and not a particle the mass of an atomdoes not change nor the atomic number.
Why only three types of decay It has to do with two of the four fundamentalforces strong nuclear weak nuclear Strong Nuclear Holds the nucleus p and n0 together.
Holds quarks together to form p and n0 g Allows alpha decay due to the stable nature andlow mass of the alpha particle Weak Nuclear Holds atoms electrons and nuclei together.
Responsible for beta decay Applications of Modern Physics Radiation Therapy high energy radiation from many sources such as X rays.
gamma rays fast moving subatomic particles particle or proton beam therapy used to kill cancer cells and shrink tumors Diagnostic imaging Technologies to look inside the body for clues about a medical.
X rays CT scans MRI scans PET scans Nuclear scans Applications of Modern Physics Radiation Therapy high energy radiation from many sources such as X rays.
gamma rays fast moving subatomic particles particle or proton beam therapy used to kill cancer cells and shrink tumors Diagnostic imaging Technologies to look inside the body for clues about a medical.
X rays CT scans MRI scans PET scans Nuclear scans Einstein s Theory of Special RelativityYou don t have to know this Its just cool The speed of light isn t just a number it is thefundamental way that space and time are related as.
Gravity is a geometric property of spacetime Implies the existence of black holes Distortions of spacetime Not even light can escape Implies that if you observe an object moving fast.
enough near c time appears to slows down length appears to stretch spacetime tells matter how to move matter tellsspacetime how to curve J A Wheeler.
The Dual Nature of LightIs light a wave or a particle Or both We already know that light can travel as awave exhibits the following wave behaviors Reflection.
Refraction Diffraction Interference Polarization This is known as the wave nature of light.
The Dual Nature of LightIs light a wave or a particle Or both However light can also travel in particle form Small bundles of light called photons.
Photons exhibit the following behaviors Reflection Refraction Photoelectric effect This is known as the particle nature of light.
Wave model of light is supported by thedouble slit experiement by Young Young s Double slit experiment Supports the wave model of light relies on interference of light .
Watch this 2 minute video and take page of noteshttps www youtube com watch v ... Nuclear PhysicsFission and Fusion. Nuclear energy is produced in two different ways. Fission: Large nuclei are split to release energy. Is how we get a lot of our energy from (Nuclear Fission Reactors) #1 source of energy = fossil fuels (coal). #2 source of energy = nuclear fission (memory aid: i in Fission = i fall to pieces) Fusion:

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