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Wildlife Animal User TrainingUniversity of MontanaInstitutional Animal Care Use Committee IACUC Objectives Ensuring safety. Of you your co Of animals Occupationalhealth program Review of zoonotic.diseases of Protecting Yourself Situation awareness Perception of environmentalelements within a volume of time and.space the comprehension of theirmeaning and the projection of theirstatus in the near future Endsley M Knowing what is going on so you canfigure out what to do Adam E C . Situation Awareness Necessary components Knowledge of environment terrain their special concerns Anticipation of changing conditions. Rapid collection processing of newinformation Training in how to respondappropriately Always staying alert engaged. Special Environments Desert arid conditions Hyperthermia Dehydration Winter mountainous conditions. Hypothermia Frostbite Avalanche Snow blindness Lack of or Inadequate.Situation AwarenessOne of the primary factors inaccidents is attributed to human Safety Training Single most important component.of being prepared staying safe Training provided by principalinvestigator PI may include Survival Injury prevention. First aid Team communication Common Field Injuries Knee ankle fromslips falls. Stings bites Known allergy carry MD prescribedepinephrine pen epi pen . Muscle strain from lifting or falling Common Field Injuries Driving accidents can result inserious injury or death Highway. Off road vehicles ATVs snow mobiles Proper training ALWAYS wear Basic Personal Safety. Use appropriatePersonal ProtectiveEquipment PPE As necessary Gloves. Sturdy boots Eye protection Coveralls Mask or respirator Basic Safety Principles. Sharps containers smallsizes available for field Good hygiene especiallyhands waterless handsanitizer 2 4 5 oz. Protect human food and Communicate with your In Case of Accident Seek medical attention as necessary Work related tell medical provider. Worker s comp claim Supervisor will have forms or find atwww umt edu research Eh worker... accidentinvest1 docx Accident reporting packet in glove box of.UM vehicles Injury from Animals Bites scratches Clean disinfect ASAP Consider aspirin .acetaminophen or ibuprofenfor pain inflammation Antibiotics from MD may be Kicks blunt trauma Large ruminants blows to the.head chest or abdomen cancause internal injuries Early Reporting of Absolutely imperative to inform Direct Supervisor. Principal Investigator Co workers when in remote field areas Any unusual symptoms seekmedical help immediately Best defense is a good offense .Provide a complete history to assistphysicians Keeping Animals Safe Situation Knowledge. Training Co workersGroup training in blood collectionbefore going to the field Danger to You .Danger to Them Weather danger Overheating dehydration Heat stress including fish all magnifiedby capture. Trap capture cool times of day provide Provide moist food to prevent dehydration Cool packs for drugged animals Reduce stress minimize shrill noises cover eyes monitor for shock. Weather Danger Hypothermia slowedmetabolism anesthetic Warm packs foranesthetized animals. Provide nest material for Provide food for energy Monitor body temperature vital signs Euthanasia. IACUC requires each Animal Use Protocol AUP to have a euthanasia contingencyplan for serious injury to animals Serious injury compound fractures gaping wounds to chest abdomen severe.unresponsive shock head trauma thatprecludes survival in the wild 2013 AVMA Guidelines on Euthanasiawww avma org KB Policies Docum... euthanasia pdf. Occupational Health Mandatory for UM tomaintain animalresearch programaccreditation. Why us Everyone listed onan AUP must andany one elseinterested may.participate Risk Assessment IACUC sponsored occupational healthmonitoring program to protect you Risk assessment performed by.occupational health physician based oninformation you provide All medical information storedconfidentially at physician s office www umt edu research complianc... .ohs riskassessment php Review Zoonotic Zoonosis review is a requirement foraccreditation of UM animal research Zoonosis disease that can be.transferred from animals to humans www umt edu research complianc... UC vetguidelines zoonoticDesea... Many of the diseases reviewed may betransferred from tissues body fluids.of dead or live animals Lyssavirus Fatal if notreatment orvaccine protection. Infects all warm blooded mammals Sylvatic rabies Mad in life Dumb rabies. Wildlife Lose fear of Unusually friendly Uncharacteristic. Uncharacteristictimes of day Rabid fox Wildlifereservoirs inUS in 2015. Bats 30 9 Raccoons 29 4 Skunks 24 8 Foxes 5 9 Rabies Incidence in. Rabies Transmission Animal bites virus in saliva Contamination of broken skin Aerosol in bat caves Corneal liver kidney transplant from.infected donor 1 2 human cases year in U S most oftenbat associated 75 humans ill 90 daysafter bite wound. Nausea vomiting Tingling and pain on sideof body where bite located Furious and paralytic forms Cause of death usually C.Negri bodies large pinkrespiratory failure during inclusions in cytoplasm of braincells diagnose Rabiesparalytic phase Rabies Prevention. Avoid close contact with wild animalsexhibiting unusual behavior Consider pre exposure immunization vaccination if work is high risk Report animal bites immediately post .exposure treatment should start within Brucellosis Can infect bothhumans and animals Caused by bacteria.from the genus Transmitted fromanimals to BrucellosisTransmission. Inhalation of aerosolized secretions Through breaks in the skin Through exposure of the mucousmembranes from the splashing ofinfected secretions. Brucellosis Prevention Wear rubber or nitrile gloves whenhandling sick or dead elk bison orbighorn sheep Wear eye protection when handling.these animals or their tissue Handle all tissue under appropriatebiosafety conditions Hantavirus Hemorrhagic.fever with renalsyndrome HFRS 1993 Hantavirussyndrome HPS Sin Nombre virus. Wildlife reservoir Peromyscusmaniculatus Hantavirus Incidence Sin Nombre.Transmission Aerosol of deer mouse urine or Contaminated hands mucous Contaminated food Bite transmission rare. 30 35 fatality rate Sin Nombre Incubation 9 to 33Early stage of disease High fever malaise .muscle or jointaches nausea vomiting diarrhea headaches respiratory distress .Middle stage of disease Sin Nombre Prevention Personal protective Gloves coveralls boots Work upwind of animals. Work in the sun if possible Wear a respirator e g N95 Fit test through Environmental Health Risk Management Yersinia pestis. Nonmotile Gram Black Death 3 forms mortality Bubonic CDC. Septicemic 5 Gangrene of fingers acomplication of plague Prairie Dog 200 species rodentreservoirs prairie.dogs rats marmots hares chipmunks ground squirrels Xenopsylla cheopis ratflea regurgitates up.to 20 000 plaguebacteria from blocked gut Plague in Pin point.hemorrhage Swollen lymph Respiratory Photo credits CDC Plague Transmission. Bites of infected rodent fleas Entry into breaks in skin whenhandling infected rodents orrabbits wild carnivores that eatinfected prey. Domestic cats highly susceptible aerosol or handling Dogs and cats can carry rat fleas Illness 2 6 daysafter infection. Swollen lymphgland fever chills headache extremeexhaustion Photo credits. Plague Clinical Signs Cough bloodyheart rate Gangrene offingers and.1 month after fingeramputationfor gangrene Plague Prevention Prevent flea infestation. Handle wild rodents withappropriate PPE Do not handle wild rodents withpetechial hemorrhages Four Corners area of the US high. Tularemia Francisellatularensis Aerobic gram coccobacillus. 10 organisms 1 4 fatalityRhipicephalus sanguineus Arthropods in Brown dog tick life cycle. TularemiaTransmission Bites by infected arthropods Handling infectious tissues Contamination of broken skin. Contaminated food water soil Inhalation of infective aerosols No human to human transmission Tularemia Clinical Fever headache .chills body aches low back nasaldischarge sore Substernal pain cough anorexia .weight loss Tularemia Prevention Personalprotectiveequipment when.skinning hares or Check for ticksdaily remove Use repellants if CDpossible Wild hare common culpritCfor.disease transmission to huntersfrom bare handed field skinning West Nile Virus Flavivirus Horses humans. encephalitis Bird reservoirs Spread bymosquitoesOchlerotatus japonicus. WNV Clinical Signs Incubation 3 14 days 80 infected humans show no 20 mild symptoms fever headache body aches nausea rash. 1 in 150 infected severe disease e g stupor coma convulsions paralysis West Nile Virus in theU S 1999 West Nile Virus.Prevention Long sleeved shirts and long pants when possible Bug Tamer apparel Shannon Outdoors Mosquito repellant DEET for skin. Avoid dusk to dawn hours outside Avoid areas of standing water www cdc gov niosh docs 2005 15... Coxiella burnetti Sheep goats cattle. 1 organism can cause Placental tissues Spread by Aerosol Q Fever Clinical Signs. 50 infected get ill in 2 3 weeks 30 50 infected get pneumonia Headache malaise muscle aches confusion GI signs weight loss 1 2 fatality rate. Chronic infection endocarditis 65 chronic cases end in death Lymphocyticchoriomeningitis virus 5 Mus musculus in.US wild mice pet Saliva urine feces ofinfected rodents Mucous membranes broken skin bites.Peromyscus sp LCM Clinical Signs Humans showing illness signs 8 13days post infection Early biphasic fever malaise muscle.aches headache nausea vomiting Later headache stiff neck confusion neurological signs Early pregnancy abortion or fetal birth Fatality rate 1 . Tick borne Illnesses Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever Colorado Tick Fever Tularemia Tick borne Relapsing Fever. Lyme Disease Preventing Tick Bites Dress in long shirt long pants and socks tuck your pant legs into your socks Spray yourself and or your clothes with a.tick repellant containing DEET Check youself carefully for any ticks thatmade it through your defense system If You Get a Remove tick with fine tipped tweezers .disinfect bite and hands with 70 alcoholor soap and water Check your body for more ticks Monitor yourself for rash infection or flu like symptoms up to a month after being. If you feel ill see a doctorimmediately END of TRAININGHAVE A GREAT FIELD SEASON .Remove tick with fine-tipped tweezers; disinfect bite and hands with 70% alcohol or soap and water. Check your body for more ticks. Monitor yourself for rash, infection, or flu-like symptoms up to a month after being bitten. If you feel ill, see a . doctor. immediately.