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Literary and DramaticLanguage fromElizabethan England Featuring Shakespearean. ContentsPart One DramaPart Two TragedyPart Three Shakespeare s PoeticPart Four Shakespeare s Word Play.Part Five Important Elements Part One DRAMAThis genre differs from other typesof literature drama the branch.of literatureespecially intendedto be acted outupon the stage aRemember that a play or.drama is intended to beperformed The written version of thatperformance is called aThe script is a set of.directions that shows thewriter s intentions for theactors and the story itself A page of Shakespeare soriginal script Stage Directions Props.stage directions instructions for an actoror director written into the script of a playprops short for property objects usedonstage by actors during a performanceStage Direction Prop.From Macbeth Dialogueconversation among multiplecharacters in a playFrom Hamlet. Monologue Soliloquy not spoken directly to a long an audience spoken directly to speechan audience a character is alone . spoken by speaking to himself or usually directed to herself expressingan audience withinONE his her inner thoughtthe play character.onstage to think out loud togive the audienceinsight to thecharacter s thoughts Famous Monologue.From Julius Caesar spoken to audience in the play Famous SoliloquyFrom Romeo and JulietSpoken words usually in an undertone that.certain characters onstage are not intended toFrom MacbethBegin at 6 30mark Noticeseveral times that.the three men donot hear asMacbeth turnscomments about Part Two TRAGEDY.Some ReviewTragedies differ from other plays suchas comedies tragedy a seriousplay showing how a.protagonist scharacter leads tohis own permanent Aristotlea famous Greek philosopher whose model.for dramatic tragedy has stood for over2000 yearsBecause many of Shakespeare s tragedies includeAristotle s concepts it is reasonable to believe thatShakespeare read Aristotle s work .Aristotelian Concepts Used in Shakespeare s Tragedies Tragic hero Tragic Flaw Catharsis Chorus. Comic Relief Tragic Herothe protagonist ofa tragedy who isregarded very.highly in his King Learsociety buteventually suffersan irreversibleRomeo and Juliet.Julius CaesarHamlet Othello Tragic FlawA character defect flaw or weaknessthat afflicts a tragic hero and leads to.his downfall AKA HamartiaGullibilityFicklenessJealousy RashnessPride AKA Hubris.Rebellion Anger Catharsisthe purification of emotions thestate of being cleansedIt is believed that an audience goes through a.process of catharsis during a tragedy 1 The audience connects with the characters 2 The audience reflects upon the flaws sins andweaknesses presented onstage 3 The audience experiences intense emotions such as.pity anger or sadness 4 The audience is renewed as justice is served andlessons are learned a group of singers who add a periodicmelody to a play.Aristotle s choruswas truly a group ofShakespeare s chorus is more likea poet who recites a.summary of the play s Comic ReliefA light hearted or comical scene in a tragedythat provides the audience with an emotionalbreak or relief from the play s intensity.Click the picture tosee the porter gateopener in Macbeth He s supposed toopen the gate when.someone knocks Shakespeare used characters that providedcomic relief for the audience Part Three SHAKESPEARE S.Shakespeare s poetry has lastedover 400 years Did you know thatthere are over 1500words possibly.created byShakespeare Renaissance LanguageMany of the words used in Shakespeare s time are no longerused Other words are still in use but have different usage.today Note these words to help you understand the text Shakespeare s Word Modern MeaningAn and IfBut Except forDost or doth Does or Do.E en EvenE re Ever Shakespeare s ModernWord MeaningHaply Perhaps.Happy FortunateHence Away from hereHither HereHo stop Hey a greetinglaughing .Mark Pay attention toMarry IndeedPray Prithee A polite way toask something roughly please. Shakespeare s Modern MeaningSirrah Sir a termaddressing inferiorsThou You subject ofThee You object of.Thine YourThither ThereWhence WhereWherefore WhyWilt Will will you.Withal In addition toThe arrangement or order of wordsLet s practice with modern words first How wouldyou arrange these words to make a correctred was truck at missing key stop chain.found the theThe missing red key chainwas found at the truck stop Substitute the troubling words and adjust theShakespeare s words Modern Words Interpretation.O Romeo Romeo Oh Romeo Romeo Oh Romeo Why dowherefore art thou Why are you Romeo you have to be RomeoRomeo Montague Why do Romeo and Juliet you have to be whoyou are my enemy .Art thou afeard Are you afraid to be Are you afraid toTo be the same in the same in your own commit the actionsthine own act and actions and bravery that you desire to dovalor as you are in desire in your thoughts As thou art in desire . MacbethI shall unfold to thee I will tell you as we I will reveal or tellas we are going are going to whom it you as we go alongto whom it must be must be done about the person thisdone must happen to Now. Julius Caesar is not the time toname that person Practice Rewrite these lines by substituting words andchanging the syntax .Hamlet thou art slain No medicine in the world can do thee good HamletLook to the east thither doth the sun arise Romeo and JulietWhy what a monstrous fellow art thou . King LearIf e er thou wast thyself and these woes thine Thou and these woes were all for Rosaline Romeo and JulietCome to me again .And bring me word what he doth say to thee Julius Caesar Poetry Vs ProsePOETRY PROSEArtistic writing that uses decorated everyday writing in a more.language with an emphasis upon straightforward way with anthe writer s creativity style and emphasis upon the standard rulesmastery of expression of English grammar usage andpunctuationStructured creatively often seen in Structured in sentences and.stanzas or grouped lines according paragraphsto rhyme or formUsually the first word of each line Usually the first letter of theis capitalized not always sentence is capitalized Othercapitalization is based upon.established rules of standardO well done I commend yourAnd every one shall share i thegains PROSEAnd now about the cauldron I will bite my thumb at them which.sing is a disgrace to them if they bare it Live elves and fairies in a ring From Romeo and Julietfrom MacbethIs the excerpt written in verse poetry orHoratio when thou shalt have overlooked this give these fellows some.means to the king they have letters for him Ere we were two days old atsea a pirate of very warlike appointment gave us chase Finding ourselvestoo slow of sail we put on a compelled valour and in the grapple I boardedthem on the instant they got clear of our ship soI alone became their prisoner They have dealt with me like thieves of.mercy but they knew what they did I am to do a good turn for them From Hamlet Part Four SHAKESPEARE SShakespeare combined words likean artist .word play thewitty use of wordsthat exploits themeanings andfeelings attached to.those wordsa contradictory statement that containsa truth a statement that presentsopposite ideas even though both ideasare somewhat truthful. A rich man is no richer than a poor man EXPLANATION A rich man has more stuff than a poor man How can a richman be no richer than a poor man Hmmm Maybe he s no richer becausehe still has the same problems with family health or temptation We are all equalas humans . I am nobody EXPLANATION This statement begins with I am If I am then I DO exist Howcan I be nobody a person who does not exist Hmmm Maybe I mean thateven though I DO exist I do not feel important No one else seems to notice me Other people make me feel like nobody .Can you explain these examples ofShakespeare s use of paradox 1 Fair is foul and foul is fair Hover through the fog and filthy air 2 First Witch You will be Lesser than Macbeth and.3 First Witch When shall we three meet again Second Witch When the battle s lost and won From Macbeth MetaphorA comparison of two unlike things in which.something is said to be another because ofshared characteristics Can you figure out what is being compared in thesemetaphors But soft what light through yonder window breaks .It is the east and Juliet is the sun From Romeo and JulietOut out brief candle Life s but a walking shadow a poor playerThat struts and frets his hour upon the stageAnd then is heard no more from Macbeth.a play on words that uses words withsimilar sounds or similar meanings tomake a pointI d tell you a chemistry joke but I know I wouldn tget a reaction .EXPLANATION In chemistry the chemicals react to one another when telling jokes one expects the audience to respond or react tothe punch line I can t believe I got fired from the calendar factory All I did was take a day off .EXPLANATION take a day off refers to both removing a day from thecalendar and not going to workDo you understand this pun Shakespeare s PunsA play on words that uses words with similar.sounds or similar meanings to make a pointRomeo Can you explain the pun I dreamed a dream tonight Which word used byMercutio Mercutio has more than one.And so did I meaning Romeo The word is LIE Mercutio saysWell what was yours that dreamers lie becausepeople lie down to sleep andMercutio dream He also suggests that.That dreamers often lie dreamers lie which meansRomeo is not telling the truth From Romeo and Juliet Part Five Outstanding writers use devices to.create a world Shakespeare used theseelements effectively You will find many ofthem present in all.classic forms of literature An unchangeable power that controlsevents of our livesIt is the stars In general Shakespeare sThe stars above us govern our society had the following.conditions King Lear 4 3 37 Kent beliefs about fate 1 Many events in life areI fear too early for my mind misgivesSome consequence yet hanging in the.just bound to happen stars there s nothing people canShall bitterly begin his fearful date do about them Think inWith this night s revels and expire the terms of having good luckterm or bad luck .Of a dispised life clos d in my breast By some vile forfeit of untimely death 2 Superstition astrology But he that hath the steerage of my zodiacs and the starsDirect my sail were very powerful. Romeo and Juliet 1 4 113 Romeo influences Character Foilcharacters who differ from each otherin order to highlight the contrastbetween the two.Shakespeare used foils topoint out certain traits ofthe main character s it The foil is there to makethe main character stand.p o out The foil sometimes doesnot live to the end of the Character Foil Pathetic Fallacy.disruption of the entire chain of beingcaused by the main character s sin Follow the link above and take notes Shakespeare used patheticfallacy to show that one man s.wrong deeds affect everythingthat is living or even the weather Notice that when evil occurs inShakespeare s tragedies weather is terrible animals.behave strangely plants die etc Pathetic FallacyRead w malsthese a se ofthe dee has.The contrast betweenexpectation and realityDRAMATIC When theaudience alreadyIRONY knows.information that acharacter doesSITUATIONA When onesituation happensL IRONY even though.another scenariois expectedVERBAL When a charactersays one thingIRONY but really means.something elseThe contrast between expectation and realityDuncan Give me your hand Conduct me to mine host We love him highly and.Shall continue our graces towardFrom MacbethWhich irony is displayed here Why The sequence of events in aliterary work. Exposition The plot usually beginsScript. Remember that a play or drama is intended to be performed. The written version of that performance is called a script. The script is a set of directions that shows the writerâ€™s intentions for the actors and the story itself. A page of Shakespeareâ€™s original script.