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Plagiarism Prevention Tutorial How to Avoid Common Forms of PlagiarismKosha D BramesfeldHumber CollegeCopyright 2015 by Kosha D Bramesfeld All rights reserved You may reproduce multiple copies of this material for your.own personal use including use in your classes and or sharing with individual colleagues as long as the author s name andinstitution and the Office of Teaching Resources in Psychology heading or other identifying information appear on the copieddocument No other permission is implied or granted to print copy reproduce or distribute additional copies of this material Anyone who wishes to produce copies for purposes other than those specified above must obtain the permission of the author To reference this resource .Bramesfeld K D 2014 Plagiarism prevention tutorial How to avoid common forms of plagiarism OTRP Peer ReviewedTeaching Resource Available from http teachpsych org otrp resou... Ethical Issues Hit the ENTER key to begin Plagiarism Prevention Tutorial How to avoid common forms of plagiarism.Prepared by Dr Kosha BramesfeldHit the ENTER key to begin Overview of this tutorialThis tutorial is organized into the following sections What is Plagiarism . Citing Sources Using APA Style Paraphrasing Information Making it Your Own Preparing a List of References Conclusions. What is Plagiarism Overview This section of the tutorial defines plagiarism andidentifies the common errors that often result in plagiarism What is plagiarism When you are asked to turn in written work that draws on the ideas.and findings of others you will want to make sure to give creditwhere credit is due This tutorial is designed to help you learn how todo this and how to avoid plagiarism Plagiarism is when you present the information ideas or words ofsomeone else in a manner that a reader of your paper would think that.the information ideas or words were your own Did you know Although many acts of plagiarism occur intentionally with the intent and knowledge that one is beingmisleading plagiarism can also occur.unintentionally without intent or knowledge as aconsequence of carelessness on the part of the Whether you intend to plagiarize or you plagiarizeas a consequence of carelessness plagiarism isunethical against academic policy and very serious . If you are caught plagiarizing you can fail an assignment acourse or even be dismissed from your program Plagiarism comes in many forms Plagiarism comes in many forms Still in most instances ofplagiarism the plagiarism tends to involve one or more of the.following errors Failure to properly cite sources of information Overreliance on the words or organizational structure ofsomeone else s work Overuse of the work or ideas of other people at the expense of.one s own unique contributions Plagiarism prevention basics To help you avoid plagiarism this tutorial will teach you how to Cite sources using APA style Paraphrase information so that you are correctly citing and using.the information and ideas of others without over relying on theexact words or organizational structure of the original Make it your own by contributing your own ideas to the paper while still properly citing so that you are not over relying on thework and ideas of other people . Create a list of references so that someone who is reading yourpaper can follow up on any sources that you cite within your paper Citing Sources Using APA StyleOverview This section of the tutorial introduces the APA citationstyle and provides examples of how to cite information in text . Citing sources using APA style Citing means to indicate the source of information when thatinformation is used within a paper i e in text You should cite the work of any individual whose ideas theories orresearch have directly influenced your work . Psychology uses the citing style of the American PsychologicalAssociation APA The next few slides cover the basics of thiscommon citing style American Psychological Association 2010 Publication manual of theAmerican Psychological Association 6th ed Washington DC Author . Citing sources using APA style To cite a source in APA style you generally need to include The last name of all authors The publication year A page number for any direct quotations. Citing sources using APA style The citation can appear as part of a sentence with the year ofpublication appearing in parentheses As noted by Myers 2013 p 45 every idea every mood everyurge is a biological happening . Or the citation can appear at the end of the sentence with the author slast name and the publication year appearing in parentheses Every idea every mood every urge is a biological happening Myers 2013 p 45 Citing one or two authors. If there is one author to a source you include the last name of that oneauthor every time you cite that source Wilson 2005 Wilson 2005 If there are two authors you include the last name of both authors every.time you cite that source Wilson and Brekke 1994 Wilson Brekke 1994 Citing three to five authors If there are three to five authors you include the last name of all authors.the first time that you cite the source Wilson Damiani and Shelton 2002 Wilson Damiani Shelton 2002 You then shorten the citation to the first author s last name andabbreviate the remaining authors last names as et al for each additional.time you cite that source Wilson et al 2002 Wilson et al 2002 Citing six or more authors If there are six or more authors you include the last name of the first.author and the abbreviation et al for the other authors each time thatyou cite the source including the first time Wilson et al 1993 Wilson et al 1993 Citing websites. If you wish to cite a website include the author or organization andyear of publication If a year of publication is not available indicate nodate using the abbreviation n d If the author or organization isunknown use the first few words of the title enclosed in quotationmarks If quoting include the paragraph number para of the.quotation Lee 2010 Plagiarism org n d The Writer s Handbook 2012 para 3 states Lee C 2010 How to cite something you found on a website in APA style blog.post Retrieved from http blog apastyle org apastyl... something you found on a websi... Citing secondary sources Sometimes you may want to cite Person A s work but youonly know about it from reading a description in Person B s.work Person B is the secondary source Because you do not know that Person B accurately reportedPerson A s ideas or that Person B did not plagiarize fromPerson A you should find the original source of Person A swork and cite Person A . Please know that by citing a source within your paper you are indicating that you have actually consulted thatsource If you cite information from a secondary sourcerather than consulting the original source you could beplagiarizing ENTER . Citing secondary sources Still it may not always be possible to track down anoriginal source For example the 2010 APA Publication Manual quotesBentley et al 1929 in describing how the manual first.began in 1929 If you wanted to include this informationin your own writing and were unable to find the originalsource you would need to make it clear that you wereThe APA Publication Manual originated as a standard of procedure Bentley etal 1929 ap secondary.57 as quoted bysource by Psychologicalthe American indicating Association the Original2010 p 3 Author year as cited in or as quoted by Secondary.Source year American Psychological Association 2010 Publication Manual of the AmericanPsychological Association 6th ed Washington DC Author Quoting is using the exact phrase or wording of someone else APA 2010 p 170 notes that when quoting always provide the.author year and specific page citation or paragraph number Quotes ofless than 40 words should appear in the text with double quotation Quotes of more than 40 words should appear as a freestanding block oftext without quotation marks The citation information can be used tointroduce the quote or it can be placed at the end of the quote In either.case the quote should end with the page or paragraph number APA 2010 An example of a block quote is presented on the next page Thequote is from The Writer s Handbook 2012 para 3 and it discusseswhen you should quote from a source When to quote . As quoted directly from The Writer s Handbook 2012 In research papers you should quote from a source to show that an authority supports your point to present a position or argument to critique or comment on to include especially moving or historically significant language. to present a particularly well stated passage whose meaningwould be lost or changed if paraphrased or summarized para 3 The Writer s Handbook Avoiding Plagiarism 2012 July 2 Paraphrasing vs quoting An explanation Retrieved fromhttps writing wisc edu Handboo... . To quote or not to quote Although quoting may be necessary in some situations as indicatedon the previous slide quoting is not the best option for avoidingplagiarism Even when quoting and citing correctly a paper can still be.considered plagiarized if a student quotes information that he or shedoes not understand if information is presented out of context or in amisleading fashion or if a student relies too heavily on the quotedwords of another when writing a paper Given this you should only quote when absolutely necessary . If not quoting then what If you should quote only when necessary what is the alternative The alternative is the use of paraphrasing Paraphrasing is puttingsomeone else s ideas into your own words while still giving creditwhere credit is due . Many students are surprised to learn that paraphrasing is an acceptableway to use the information of others In fact in many ways paraphrasing is preferable to quoting because it reflects your ownpersonal understanding of the material The next section of this tutorial discusses why paraphrasing is generally.preferable to quoting discusses how to properly paraphraseinformation and provides examples of properly paraphrased passages Paraphrasing InformationOverview This section of the tutorial provides information onhow to properly paraphrase information from other sources . Quoting out of contextAssume that a student is asked to summarize the findings of an articlewritten by Gu guen 2012 The student writes the following In the study by Gu guen 2012 participants were randomly assigned toone of four between subject color conditions red blue green and white n. 30 in each condition They were informed that the experiment was tostudy how men judged photographs representing women p 262 Withthe attractiveness rating a main effect was found F 3 116 4 27 p 007 2 08 Post hoc comparisons revealed that red was differentfrom blue and green whereas no further statistical difference was found .Gu guen N 2012 Color and women attractiveness When red clothed women areperceived to have more intense sexual intent The Journal of SocialPsychology 152 261 265 http dx doi org 10 1080 002245... Quoting out of context. There are numerous problems with the prior passage that could begrounds for accusations of plagiarism First the quotations do not make any sense out of context andinclude details that are not relevant to the summary Second unless the student has training in research methods and.statistics it is unlikely that the student fully understands theprocedures and statistical results that she is quoting Third the student s summary of the article does not really reflecther own understanding of the article Rather she is relying entirelyon the words of the author to formulate her the summary and.therefore she cannot really call the summary her own The power of paraphrasing Paraphrasing is a technique that allows a writer to rephraseinformation from another source in a manner that reflects the writer sown understanding of that information while still giving credit where.credit is due Paraphrasing is advantageous over quoting as it allows the writer To summarize the key aspects of a source To place the information from a source into context .APA (2010, p. 170) notes that, â€œwhen quoting, always provide the author, year, and specific page citation or paragraph number.â€ Quotes of less than 40 words should appear in the text with double quotation marks. Quotes of more than 40 words should appear as a freestanding block of text, without quotation marks.