Physics 201 –College Physics

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Physics 201 College PhysicsAkhdiyor SattarovLectures MWF 1 50 2 40E mail a sattarov physics tamu eduPhone 458 7967 office 845 6015 lab.
Office Hours or by appointment Office MPHYS 303Web site http people physics tamu edu a... Text Physics 8th ed by Young Geller with Mastering Physics PHYS 202Lab Manual.
Optional Student Solutions Manual Student Student Guide Grading 4 exams 60 Final comprehensive 20 Lab10 Recitation5 Homework Mastering Phys 5 You must achieve 70 or better in the laboratory in order to pass the course If your grade on the Final Exam is higher than your lowest grade on one of.
the four exams during the semester your grade on the Final will replace thatone lowest exam grade in computing the course grade Sept 3 is last day to drop with no record Nov 5 is the last day to Q drop Final Exam is December 14 2010 3 30pm 5 30pm.
The Goal of Physics To provide understanding of the physical world by developingtheories based on experiments Physical theories model real world and are statement of what hasbeen observed and provide prediction of new observations that can.
be confirmed or turned down by experiment Broad and solidly established by experiment physical theory physical lawPhysical Law True there is no contradiction to observation.
Universal apply everywhere in the universe Simple Stable unchanged since first discovered How do we analyze physical system Simplification of a complicated system depending on our goals we.
exclude neglect unimportant weak effects isolate system ofExample A small rock thrown upward we can neglect the airresistance Very often we use point particle idealized object that lacks spatialextensions.
Earth orbiting around Sun we can treat Earth as point particlebecause the radius of Earth much smaller than the dimensions ofthe system Standards and Units Physical quantity Quantity used to describe an observation of.
physical phenomenon Each physical quantity is represented with respect to referencestandard Unit of the quantity Some Physical quantities are defined only by describing aprocedure for measuring them operational definition.
Some physical quantities can be derived from other quantities Most fundamental quantities International SystemLength meter distance traveled in vacuum by lightduring 1 299792458 of sec.
Time second 9 192 631700 times the period of oscillationsof radiation from the cesium atom Mass kilogram 90 Platinum 10 iridium alloy cylinderh d 0 03917m Since we will work with very small and very big systems we have.
to have conversion multipliersPower of 10 Prefix Abbreviation10 6 micro m10 3 milli m10 2 centi c.
103 kilo k106 mega M109 giga G Using prefixes 1cm 1 centimeter 1x10 2m 0 01m thickness of a notebook.
1fm 1 femtometer 10 15m radius of a nucleus 1ns 1 nanosecond 10 9s time required for light to travel about 1ft 1ms 1 millisecond 10 3s time required for sound to travel about 1ft 1kg 1 kilogram 103g 1Mg 1000kg 106g mass of water that has volume of 1m3 at 4oC.
Dimensional analysisIn Physics the word dimension denotes the physical nature of adistance between 2 points can be measured in meters centimeters feet etc different ways of expressing the dimension of length it is often necessary to derive mathematical expression or equation.
or check its correctness A useful procedure for doing this is calleddimensional analysis Dimensional analysis makes use of the fact that dimensions can betreated as algebraic quantitiesExample Volume of a cube of water L 2m.
Example Find mass of water density of water 997 kg m3Example Express speed of light 3x108 m s in km h V L L L 2m 2m 2m 2 2 2 m m m 8m 3m V 997 3 8m 997 8 3 m 3 7976kg8m 8 m km 3600s 9 km.
c 3 10 3 10 1 08 10s s 1000m h hAlways use units in calculations You can not add or subtract quantities that havedifferent units.
3kg 15m means something is wrongIt will help you to check dimensional consistency of yourMass r2 V 997kg m3 2 8m3 kg2 m3 something is wrong Precision and Significant figures.
No physical quantity can be determined with complete accuracy Knowing experimental uncertainties in any measurements is very Accuracy of measurements depends on the sensitivity of thedevices the skill of the investigator In many cases result from one measurement is used in derivation of.
other physical quantitiesWe have to develop basic and reliable method of keeping track ofthose uncertainties in subsequent calculations Example Let we have to measure area of a rectangular plate with ameter stick Suppose that we can measure particular side with.
0 1cm accuracy Suppose that side a 16 3cm and side b 4 5cm Side a 16 3 0 1 cm side b 4 5 0 1cm Mid Area 16 3cm x 4 5cm 73 35cm2 High Area 16 4cm x 4 6cm 75 44cm2 Low Area 16 2cm x 4 4cm 71 28cm2.
so our area 73 2cm note that the answer has two significant figuresIn our example First term had 3 and the second 2 significant figuresIn multiplying dividing two or more quantities the number ofsignificant figures in the final result is no greater than the number ofsignificant figures in the term that had fewest significant figures .
In addition subtraction two or more quantities the final result can haveno more decimal places than the term with fewest decimal placesExample 128 5 35 133 Scalar and vector Scalar physical quantity is a quantity described by single.
number examples are time mass density charge etc Vector quantity is a quantity that is described by amagnitude and a direction Graphically vector is represented as an arrow pointing ingiven direction and having length that is proportional to.
the magnitude of the vector Symbolically vector is represented by a label with smallarrow sign over it Example Position vector shows a direction and howfar from the reference point the object resides .
Example Displacement vector shows change inposition from starting point to finalMagnitude of a vector Let have several vectorsWe say that vectors are parallel.
We say that A DWe say that vectors are antiparallelWe say A E Product of a scalar and a VectorResulting Vector is collinear.
parallel or anti parallel to theoriginal vector Adding vectors Tail to tip method Draw the vectors with proper scaling Draw the second one putting its tail to the.
tip of the first oneA B B A Draw the resultant from the tail of the firstA vector to the tip of the second One can change the order of the vectors .
A B B AParallelogram method2 vectors are along twosides of a parallelogramA Resulting vector along the.
diagonal of the parallelogramthat starts at the tails of the Multiplying sum of two vectors by scalars A A B sUsing two similar triangles we find.
A B that the bigger triangle is just scaledB s A B s A s B Sum of 3 vectors .
A B C A A B C A B C Subtraction of vectors .
A B B CDirection vector A A A A It is in the direction of the vector A but has a unit length and it is.
dimensionless Components of vectors 2d Let we have some vector We define some reference frame A tail of the vector positioned at O .
Define two component vectors A Ax Ay Ax Ax 0 or A cos 0 A cos 0 .
Let define angle betweenAy 0 Ay or 0 A sin A sin 90 vector and positive x direction A Ax Ay Ax Ay or A cos A sin A yA Ax2 Ay2 A.
tan Ay IAI sin Components are not vectors QAy positive and negative bey component.
represented in vectorof 2 waysA xdepending on an angle Ax IAI cos a by its componentsb By its magnitude and angle with.
Ax x component of vector Apositive x direction in 3d case alsoangle with positive z direction A person starts from point A and arrives at point B Findcomponents magnitude of the position vectors and angle.
between the vector and x axis Find the displacement vector Y km Ax 2km 1 A tan tan 1 1 5Bx 2km By B tan 1 tan 1 0 5.
By 1km BxPay attention You may getB this angle Multiplication by a scalar and addition ofvectors becomes very simple.
s A s Ax s Ayx componet y componets A s A s Ay 2 s Ax Ay s AA B Ax Bx Ay B y.
x componet y componet Example 1 45 Vector A has components Ax 1 3cm Ay 2 25cm vector B has components Bx 4 1cm and By 3 75cm Findthe components of the vector sum A B The magnitude and direction of A B .
The components of the vector difference B A The magnitude and direction of B A Example1 50 A postal employee drives a delivery truck along theroute shown in figure below Use components to determine themagnitude and direction of the truck s resultant displacement .
Then check the reasonableness of your answer by sketching agraphical sum Kinematics describes the motion of object without causes thatleaded to the motionWe are not interested in details of the object it can be car person .
box etc We treat it as dimensionless pointWe want to describe position of the object with respect to time we want to know position at any given timePath trajectory imaginary line alongwhich the object moves.
Motion along a straight line We will always try to set up our reference frame in a suchway that motion is along or x or y coordinate axis Thedirection of the axis is up to us Position vector then can be represented by a single.
component the other components are equal to zero Very often I will write rn instead ofy r tn the same for the components oft t1 t t2 t t3the vector for example yn instead ofx1 19m t1 1s.
r t2 x2 277m t1 4sr t1 x1 y1 z1 y1 z1 0r t 2 x2 y2 z 2 y2 z 2 0 Motion along a straight line x component of a displacement vector d r2 r1 for time.
interval t1 t2 is equal Dx x2 x1 Note that we can define another reference frame position will be different in each frame not a displacement vectord r 2 r 1.
Standards and Units Slide 7 Using prefixes Dimensional analysis Slide 10 Precision and Significant figures Slide 12 Scalar and vector Slide 14 Slide 15 Product of a scalar and a Vector Adding vectors: Tail to tip method Multiplying sum of two vectors by scalar Slide 19 Subtraction of vectors Components of vectors (2d) Slide 22 Multiplication by ...

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