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Providing Safe FoodObjectives Recognize the importance of food safety Understand how food becomes unsafe Identify TCS food. Recognize the risk factors for foodborne illness Understand important prevention measures forkeeping food safe Challenges to Food SafetyA foodborne illness is a disease transmitted to.people through food An illness is considered an outbreak when Two or more people have the same symptomsafter eating the same food An investigation is conducted by state and local.regulatory authorities The outbreak is confirmed by laboratory analysis Challenges to Food SafetyChallenges include Time and money. Language and culture Literacy and education Pathogens Unapproved suppliers High risk customers. Staff turnover Costs of Foodborne IllnessCosts of a foodborne illness to an operation Loss of customers and sales Loss of reputationNegative media exposure Lowered staff morale. Costs of Foodborne IllnessCosts of a foodborne illness to an operation Lawsuits and legal fees Staff missing workIncreased insurance premiums Staff retraining How Foodborne Illnesses Occur.Unsafe food is the result of contamination Biological Chemical Physical Contaminants.Biological contaminants Bacteria Viruses Parasites Contaminants.Chemical contaminants Cleaners Sanitizers Polishes Contaminants.Physical hazards Metal shavings Staples Bandages Natural objects e g fish bones in a fillet . How Food Becomes UnsafeFive risk factors for foodborne illness 1 Purchasing food from unsafe sources2 Failing to cook food correctly3 Holding food at incorrect temperatures.4 Using contaminated equipment5 Practicing poor personal hygiene How Food Becomes UnsafeTime temperature abuse Cross contaminationPoor personal hygiene Poor cleaning and sanitizing. How Food Becomes UnsafeTime temperature abuse When food has stayed too long attemperatures good for pathogen growth How Food Becomes Unsafe.Food has been time temperatureabused when It has not been held or stored atcorrect temperatures Pg 1 5 SSF 6ePg 1 5 SSF 6e.Pg 1 5 SSF 6e It is not cooked or reheated enoughto kill pathogens It is not cooled correctly How Food Becomes Unsafe.Cross contamination When pathogens are transferred from onesurface or food to anotherPg 1 5 SSF 6e How Food Becomes Unsafe.Cross contamination can cause afoodborne illness when Contaminated ingredients are added tofood that receives no further cooking Ready to eat food touches contaminated Pg 1 5 SSF 6e. A food handler touches contaminatedfood and then touches ready to eat food Contaminated cleaning cloths touchfood contact surfaces How Food Becomes Unsafe.Poor personal hygiene can cause afoodborne illness when food handlers Fail to wash their hands correctly after usingthe restroomPg 1 5 SSF 6e. Cough or sneeze on food Touch or scratch wounds and then touch food Work while sick How Food Becomes UnsafePoor cleaning and sanitizing . Equipment and utensils are not washed rinsed and sanitized between uses Food contact surfaces are wiped clean insteadof being washed rinsed and sanitizedPg 1 5 SSF 6e. Wiping cloths are not stored in a sanitizersolution between uses Sanitizer solution was not prepared correctly Food Most Likely to Become Unsafe Food Most Likely to Become Unsafe. Ready to Eat FoodReady to eat food is food that can be eaten without further Preparation Washing Cooking.Ready to eat food includes Cooked food Washed fruit and vegetables Deli meat Bakery items. Sugar spices and seasonings Populations at High Risk for Foodborne IllnessesThese people have a higher risk of gettinga foodborne illness Elderly people. Preschool age children People with compromised immune systems Keeping Food SafeFocus on these measures Controlling time and temperature. Preventing cross contamination Practicing personal hygiene Purchasing from approved reputable suppliers Cleaning and sanitizing Keeping Food Safe.Training and monitoring Train staff to follow food safety procedures Provide initial and ongoing training Provide all staff with general foodsafety knowledge. Provide job specific food safety training Retrain staff regularly Monitor staff to make sure they are followingprocedures Document training. Keeping Food SafeGovernment agencies The Food and Drug Administration FDA U S Department of Agriculture USDA Centers for Disease Control and Prevention CDC . U S Public Health Service PHS State and local regulatory authorities You Can Prevent ContaminationObjectives Biological chemical and physical contaminants and how to prevent them. How to prevent the deliberate contamination of food How to respond to a foodborne illness outbreak Common food allergens and how to prevent reactions to them How Contamination HappensContaminants come from a variety of places . Animals we use for food Air contaminated water and dirt Peopleo Deliberatelyo Accidentally. How Contamination HappensPeople can contaminate food when They don t wash their hands after usingthe restroom They are in contact with a person who. They sneeze or vomit onto food or foodcontact surfaces They touch dirty food contact surfaces andequipment and then touch food Biological Contamination.Microorganism Small living organism that can be seen only with a microscope Harmful microorganism Make people sick when eaten or produce toxins that cause illness Poison. Biological ContaminationFour types of pathogens can contaminate food and causefoodborne illness Bacteria Viruses Parasites Fungi Biological Contamination.Common symptoms of foodborne illness Diarrhea Vomiting Nausea Abdominal cramps. Jaundice yellowing of skin and eyes Onset times Depend on the type of foodborne illness Can range from 30 minutes to six weeks The Big Six Pathogens.Food handlers diagnosed with illnesses from the Big Six pathogens cannot work in a foodservice operation while they are Shigella spp Salmonella Typhi Nontyphoidal Salmonella NTS . Shiga toxin producing Escherichia coli STEC also known as E coli Hepatitis A Norovirus Bacteria Basic Characteristics Found almost everywhere.Detection Cannot be seen smelled or tasted Will grow rapidly if FAT TOM conditionsare correctPrevention . Control time and temperature What Bacteria Need to GrowTemperature What Bacteria Need to Grow Most bacteria need nutrients to survive. TCS food supports the growth of bacteriabetter than other types of food What Bacteria Need to Grow Bacteria grow best in food thatcontains little or no acid. What Bacteria Need to GrowTemperature Bacteria grow rapidly between 41 F and135 F 5 C and 57 C o This range is known as the.temperature danger zone Bacteria growth is limited when food isheld above or below the temperatureTemperaturedanger zone. What Bacteria Need to Grow Bacteria need time to grow The more time bacteria spend inthe temperature danger zone the greater chance they have to.grow to unsafe levels What Bacteria Need to Grow Some bacteria need oxygen to grow whileothers grow when oxygen isn t there What Bacteria Need to Grow. Bacteria grow well in food with high levelsof moisture aw water activity the amount of moistureavailable in food for bacterial growth aw scale ranges from 0 0 to 1 0 M. Water has a water activity of 1 0 Control FAT TOMThe conditions you can control Temperatureo Keep TCS food out of the temperature.danger zoneo Limit how long TCS food spends in thetemperature danger zone Major Bacteria That Cause Foodborne IllnessThe FDA has identified four types of bacteria that cause severe.illness and are highly contagious Salmonella Typhi Nontyphoidal Salmonella Shigella spp Shiga toxin producing Escherichia coli. Major Bacteria That Cause Foodborne IllnessBacteria Salmonella Typhi SAL me NEL uh TI fee Source PeopleFood Linked with the Bacteria Prevention Measures Ready to eat food Exclude food handlers diagnosed with an. Beverages illness caused by Salmonella Typhi fromthe operation Wash hands Cook food to minimum internaltemperatures. Major Bacteria That Cause Foodborne IllnessBacteria Nontyphoidal Salmonella SAL me NEL uh Source Farm animals PeopleFood Linked with the Bacteria Prevention Measures Poultry and eggs Cook poultry and eggs to minimum internal. Meat temperatures Milk and dairy products Produce Prevent cross contamination betweenpoultry and ready to eat food. Keep food handlers who are vomiting orhave diarrhea and have been diagnosedwith an illness from nontyphoidalSalmonella out of the operation Major Bacteria That Cause Foodborne Illness.Bacteria Shigella spp shi GEL uh Source Human fecesFood Linked with the Bacteria Prevention Measures Food easily contaminated by hands such as Exclude food handlers who have diarrheasalads containing TCS food potato tuna and have been diagnosed with an illness.shrimp macaroni chicken caused by Shigella spp from the operation Exclude food handlers who have diarrheafrom the operation Food that has made contact with Wash handscontaminated water such as produce. Control flies inside and outsidethe operation Major Bacteria That Cause Foodborne IllnessBacteria Shiga toxin producing Escherichia coli ess chur EE kee UH KO LI also known as E coli.Source Intestines of cattle infected peopleFood Linked with the Bacteria Prevention Measures Ground beef raw and undercooked Exclude food handlers who have diarrhea Contaminated produce and have been diagnosed with a diseasefrom the bacteria. Cook food especially ground beef tominimum internal temperatures Purchase produce from approved reputable suppliers Prevent cross contamination between raw.meat and ready to eat food Viruses Basic Characteristics Carried by human beings and animalso Require a living host to growo Do not grow in food.o Can be transferred through food and remaininfectious in food Food water or any contaminated surface Typically occur through fecal oral routes Viruses Basic Characteristics.Destruction Not destroyed by normal cookingtemperatures Good personal hygiene must bepracticed when handling food and.food contact surfaces Quick removal and cleanup of vomitis important Major Viruses that Cause Foodborne IllnessesThe FDA has identified two viruses that are highly contagious.and can cause severe illness Hepatitis A NorovirusFood handlers diagnosed with an illness from hepatitis A orNorovirus must not work in an operation while they are sick . Major Viruses That Cause Foodborne IllnessVirus Hepatitis A HEP a TI tiss Source Human fecesFood Linked with the Virus Prevention Measures Ready to eat food Exclude staff who have been diagnosed with hepatitis. Shellfish from contaminated water A from the operation Exclude staff who have jaundice for seven days orless from the operation Wash hands Avoid bare hand contact with ready to eat food . Purchase shellfish from approved reputable suppliers Major Viruses That Cause Foodborne IllnessVirus Norovirus NOR o VI rus Source Human fecesFood Linked with the Virus Prevention Measures. Ready to eat food Exclude staff who are vomiting or have diarrhea and Shellfish from contaminated water have been diagnosed with Norovirus from theoperation Wash hands Avoid bare hand contact with ready to eat food . Purchase shellfish from approved reputable suppliers Parasites Basic characteristics Require a host to live and reproduce Seafood wild game and food processed withcontaminated water such as produce. Parasites Basic characteristicsPrevention Purchase food from approved reputable suppliers Cook food to required minimum.internal temperatures Fish that will be served raw orundercooked must be frozencorrectly by the manufacturer Fungi Basic Characteristics.Training new staff leaves less time for food safety training. The ServSafe program will provide the tools needed to overcome the challenges in managing a good food safety program. ... A food handler touches contaminated food and then touches ready-to-eat food. Contaminated cleaning cloths touch food-contact surfaces. 1-16.