TCP/IP Networking

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TCP IP Networking Computer Center CS NCTU Introduction Layers of TCP IP Link Layer.
Network Layer Transport Layer Application Layer Network Interface and Hardware Networking.
Setting up Network Computer Center CS NCTUIntroduction ARPANET Advanced Research Projects Agency Network.
NCP Network Control Protocol Allow an exchange of information between separated computersStanford Research Institute University of UtahUC Santa Barbara UCLA Computer Center CS NCTU.
Introduction Why TCP IP Transmission Control Protocol Internet Protocol The gap between applications and Network Network.
802 3 Ethernet 802 4 Token bus 802 5 Token Ring 802 11 Wireless 802 16 WiMAX.
Application Reliable Performance Computer Center CS NCTUIntroduction.
Layers of TCP IP 1 TCP IP is a suite of networking protocols 4 layers Layering architecture Link layer data link layer Include device drivers to handle hardware details.
Network layer IP Handle the movement of packets around the network Transport layer Port Handle flow of data between hosts Application.
Computer Center CS NCTUIntroduction Layers of TCP IP 2 ISO OSI Model International Organization for Standardization .
Open System Interconnection Reference Model TCP IP Model Computer Center CS NCTUIntroduction Layers of TCP IP 3 .
Encapsulation Multiplexing Gathering data from multiple sockets enveloping datawith headerApplication data DataApplication data Segment.
Network TransportApplication data PacketHeader HeaderFrame Network TransportApplication data CRC Frame.
Header Header Header7 0110101 Bits Computer Center CS NCTUIntroduction Layers of TCP IP 4 .
Decapsulation Demultiplexing Delivering received segments to correct socket Computer Center CS NCTUIntroduction TCP IP Family.
arp FTP HTTP SMTP DNS DNS TFTP tracerouteARP Device driversCopper optical fiber radio waves Computer Center CS NCTUIntroduction.
Addressing Addressing Nearby same network Computer Center CS NCTUIntroduction.
Addressing Addressing Faraway across network Computer Center CS NCTUIntroduction.
Addressing 32 bits Unique Internet Address of a host 16 bits Uniquely identify application MAC Address Media Access Control Address.
48 bits Network Interface Card NIC Hardware addresssabsd home chwong chwong ifconfigsk0 flags 8843 UP BROADCAST RUNNIN... mtu 1500options b RXCSUM TXCSUM VLAN M... inet 140 113 17 215 netmask 0xffffff00 broadcast 140 113 17 255.
inet 140 113 17 221 netmask 0xffffffff broadcast 140 113 17 221ether 00 11 d8 06 1e 81media Ethernet autoselect 100baseTX full duplex flag0 flag1 status activelo0 flags 8049 UP LOOPBACK RUNNING... mtu 16384.
inet 127 0 0 1 netmask 0xff000000 Link Layer Computer Center CS NCTUNetwork Interface and Hardware LAN Local WAN Wide MAN Metropolitan .
Ethernet Token Ring FDDI PPP xDSL ISDN Physical Topologies see next slide Logical Topologies Broadcast Token passing.
Common LAN Devices NIC Repeater Hub Bridge Switch Router Common LAN Media UTP STP Coaxial Cable Fiber Optic Cable Computer Center CS NCTU.
Network Interface and Hardware Physical Topologies Computer Center CS NCTUNetwork Interface and Hardware Coaxial Cable.
Thicknet v s thinnet BNC connector Twisted Pair StandardsPin 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8T568 A W G Green W O Blue W Blue Orange W Br Brown.
T568 B W O Orange W G Blue W Blue Green W Br Brown Straight through v s Crossover RJ 45 connector Fiber Optic Cable Multimode v s single mode.
Wireless IrDA Radio 2 4GHz 5GHz Computer Center CS NCTUThe Link Layer Ethernet the common LAN.
10 Mb s 100 Mb s 1Gb s 802 3 802 3u 802 3z CSMA CD Carrier Sense Multiple Access Collision Detect Ethernet Address 48bits 00 80 c8 92 0e e1.
Ethernet Frame Ethernet MTU Maximum Transmission Unit is 1500 bytes IP fragmentation Path MTU MTU of various physical device.
Preamble D addr S addr Type Data CRC64 bits 48 bits 48 bits 16 bits max 1500 bytes 32 bits Network Layer Computer Center CS NCTUThe Network Layer.
Path Determination The Internet Protocol IP IP address 32 bits Topics IP Address.
Subnetting and netmask Address types Routing Computer Center CS NCTUThe Network Layer.
IP Address 32 bit long Ex Network part NCTU Identify a logical network Class B address 140 113 0 0 Host part Network ID 140 113.
Identify a machine on certain network Number of hosts 256 256 65536 IP address category Computer Center CS NCTUThe Network Layer Subnetting and Netmask 1 .
Subnetting Borrow some bits from network ID to extends hosts ID ClassB address 140 113 0 0 256 ClassC like IP addressesin N N N H subnetting method.
140 113 209 0 subnet Netmask Specify how many bits of network ID are used for network ID Continuous 1 bits form the network part 255 255 255 0 in NCTU CS example.
256 hosts available 255 255 255 248 in ADSL example Only 8 hosts available Computer Center CS NCTUThe Network Layer.
Subnetting and Netmask 2 How to determine your network ID Bitwise AND IP and netmask 140 113 214 37 255 255 255 0 140 113 214 0 140 113 209 37 255 255 255 0 140 113 209 0.
140 113 214 37 255 255 0 0 140 113 0 0 140 113 209 37 255 255 0 0 140 113 0 0 211 23 188 78 255 255 255 248 211 23 188 72 78 01001110 78 248 01001110 11111000 72.
Computer Center CS NCTUThe Network Layer Subnetting and Netmask 3 In a subnet not all IP are available The first one IP network ID.
The last one IP broadcast addressNetmask 255 255 255 0 Netmask 255 255 255 252140 113 209 32 24 211 23 188 78 29140 113 209 0 network ID 211 23 188 72 network ID140 113 209 255 broadcast address 211 23 188 79 broadcast address.
1 254 total 254 IPs are usable 73 78 total 6 IPs are usable Computer Center CS NCTUThe Network Layer Subnetting and Netmask 4 The smallest subnetting.
Network portion 30 bits Host portion 2 bits 4 hosts but only 2 IPs are available ipcalc usr ports net mgmt ipcalc.
Computer Center CS NCTUThe Network Layer Subnetting and Netmask 5 Network configuration for various lengths of netmask Computer Center CS NCTU.
The Network Layer IP address crisis IP address crisis Run out of class B address The most desirable ones for moderately large organizations.
IP address were being allocated on a FCFS With no locality of reference Solutions Short term Subnetting and CIDR classless inter domain routing .
NAT network address translation Long term Computer Center CS NCTUThe Network Layer NAT 1 .
Private Address Packets that bearing private address will not go out to the Internet 3 private addresses range Depend on the size of your organization Computer Center CS NCTU.
The Network Layer NAT 2 Network Address Translation Allow hosts using private address to talk with outside Computer Center CS NCTU.
The Network Layer Routing 1 Goal Direct a packet closer to the destination Flat v s Hierarchical Routing table.
Routing information which kind of packets to which way Rule based information Kernel will pick the most suitable way to route the packetschbsd home chwong chwong netstat rnRouting tables.
Destination Gateway Flags Refs Use Netif Expiredefault 140 113 17 254 UGS 0 4439610 dc0127 0 0 1 127 0 0 1 UH 0 3887 lo0140 113 17 24 link 1 UC 0 0 dc0140 113 17 209 00 0d 61 21 02 54 UHLW 1 38 dc0 477.
140 113 17 212 00 90 96 23 8f 7d UHLW 1 22558 lo0140 113 17 215 00 11 d8 06 1e 81 UHLW 1 17 dc0 1188140 113 17 248 00 0b ac d7 93 40 UHLW 1 0 dc0 1170140 113 17 25429 00 90 69 64 ec 00 UHLW 2 0 dc0 1200.
Computer Center CS NCTUThe Network Layer Routing 2 Static route Statically configured by route command.
route add default 140 113 235 254 route add 192 168 1 0 24 192 168 1 254 Dynamic route Computer Center CS NCTUThe Network Layer.
Routing 3 ping R and traceroute chbsd home chwong chwong ping c 1 R www nctu edu twPING www nctu edu tw 140 113 250 5 56 data bytes64 bytes from 140 113 250 5 icmp seq 0 ttl 61 time 2 249 ms.
RR ProjE27 253 NCTU edu tw 140 113 27 253 140 113 0 57CC250 gw NCTU edu tw 140 113 250 253 www NCTU edu tw 140 113 250 5 www NCTU edu tw 140 113 250 5 .
140 113 0 58ProjE27 254 NCTU edu tw 140 113 27 254 e3rtn csie nctu edu tw 140 113 17 254 chbsd csie nctu edu tw 140 113 17 212 www nctu edu tw ping statistics .
1 packets transmitted 1 packets received 0 packet lossround trip min avg max stddev 2 249 2 249 2 249 0 000 mschbsd home chwong chwong traceroute www nctu edu twtraceroute to www nctu edu tw 140 113 250 5 64 hops max 40 byte packets1 e3rtn 140 113 17 254 0 524 ms 0 406 ms 0 512 ms.
2 ProjE27 254 NCTU edu tw 140 113 27 254 0 574 ms 0 501 ms 0 422 ms3 140 113 0 58 140 113 0 58 0 487 ms 0 583 ms 0 541 ms31 4 www NCTU edu tw 140 113 250 5 0 673 ms 0 611 ms 0 621 ms Transport Layer Computer Center CS NCTU.
The Transport Layer 16 bits number Preserve ports 1 1024 root access only Well known port.
etc serviceschargen 19 tcp ttytst source Character Generatorchargen 19 udp ttytst source Character Generatorftp data 20 tcp File Transfer Default Data ftp data 20 udp File Transfer Default Data .
ftp 21 tcp File Transfer Control ftp 21 udp File Transfer Control ssh 22 tcp Secure Shell Loginssh 22 udp Secure Shell Logintelnet 23 tcp.
telnet 23 udp Computer Center CS NCTUThe Transport Layer UDP v s TCPFunction UDP TCP.
Connection oriented No YesMessage boundaries Yes NoData checksum Optional YesPositive acknowledgement No YesTime out and retransmit No Yes.
Duplicate detection No YesSequencing No YesFlow control No Yes Computer Center CS NCTUThe Transport Layer.
useful commands tcpdump sniffit trafshow netstat schbsd home chwong chwong sudo tcpdump n host 140 113 235 131tcpdump verbose output suppressed use v or vv for full protocol decodelistening on dc0 link type EN10MB Ethernet capture size 96 bytes.
11 25 50 996542 IP 140 113 17 212 61233 140 113 235 131 22 P 266166194 266166226 32 ack 938637316 win 33304 nop nop timestamp 3368918203 130908112 11 25 50 998247 IP 140 113 235 131 22 140 113 17 212 61233 P 1 33 32 ack 32 win 33304 nop nop timestamp 134993614 3368918203 11 25 50 998396 IP 140 113 235 131 22 140 113 17 212 61233 P 33 65 32 ack 32 win.
33304 nop nop timestamp 134993614 3368918203 11 25 50 998438 IP 140 113 17 212 61233 140 113 235 131 22 ack 65 win 33288 nop nop timestamp 3368918205 134993614 11 26 36 935422 IP 140 113 17 212 140 113 235 131 ICMP echo request id 28124 seq 0 11 26 36 935761 IP 140 113 235 131 140 113 17 212 ICMP echo reply id 28124 seq 0 .
6 packets captured697 packets received by filter0 packets dropped by kernel Computer Center CS NCTUThe Application Layer.
The Client Server Model Port Numbers etc services The first 1024 ports are reserved ports Internet Services.
inetd and etc inetd conf Computer Center CS NCTUThe Application Layer inetd internet super server add inetd enable YES into etc rc conf.
etc inetd confdaytime stream tcp nowait root internalftp stream tcp nowait root usr libexec ftpd ftpd lssh stream tcp nowait root usr sbin sshd sshd i 4telnet stream tcp nowait root usr libexec telnetd telnetd.
pop3 stream tcp nowait root usr local libexec popper popper etc servicesdaytime 13 tcpftp data 20 tcp File Transfer Default Data ftp 21 tcp File Transfer Control .
ssh 22 tcp Secure Shell Logintelnet 23 tcppop3 110 tcp Post Office Protocol Version 3 Computer Center CS NCTUThe Application Layer.
Domain Name SystemTCP/IP is a suite of networking protocols. 4 layers Layering architecture. Link layer (data-link layer) Include device drivers to handle hardware details. Network layer (IP) Handle the movement of packets around the network. Transport layer (Port) Handle flow of data between hosts. Application

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