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AP Psychology Chapter 2 Techniques to Study theBrain lesions experimentally destroy braintissue to study animal behaviors after suchdestruction.Usually done for scientific and medicinalNot done on humans unethical Techniques to Study theNaturalistic EEGObservation Electroencephalogr.Alterations in brain aphy morthpology arenow being study Electroencephalograand catalogued phy EEG is therecording of.electrical activityalong the scalp EEGmeasures voltagefluctuationsresulting from ionic.current flows withinthe neurons of thebrain 1 In clinical Techniques to Study theMagnetic resonance.Uses magnetic fieldsand radio waves tocreate computergenerated images ofbrain tissue. Techniques to Study thePET PositrontomographyVisual display ofactivity that detects.radio active form ofglucose while brainperforms a specific Phineas Gage Phineas Gage.Phineas Gage is oftenreferred to as one of themost famous patients inneuroscience He suffereda traumatic brain injury.when an iron rod wasdriven through his entireskull destroying much ofhis frontal lobe Gagemiraculously survived the.accident but was sochanged as a result thatmany of his friendsdescribed him as an almostdifferent man entirely . Phineas Gagehttp www youtube com watch v oPAqTP7058Q Older Brain StructuresThe Brainstemisthe oldest part of the brain .beginning where the spinal cord swells and entersthe skull It is responsible for automatic survivalfunctions Brain StemThe Medulla muh DUL uh .is the base of the brainstemIt controls autonomic functions andrelays nerve signals between thebrain and spinal cord respiration.blood pressureheart ratereflex arcs Brain StemThe Medulla muh .DUL uh is the baseof the brainstem thatcontrols heartbeatand breathing Brain Stem.The Thalamus THAL uh muss isthe brain s sensoryswitchboard located on top of.the brainstem Itdirects messages tothe sensory areas inthe cortex andtransmits replies to.the cerebellum andThe Pons plays a role inmuscle coordination Reticular Formation Reticular Formationisa.nerve network in thebrainstem that plays animportant role incontrolling arousal Damage to this causes a.disorder called narcolepsyin which a person fallsasleep suddenly during thedaytime and cannot resistthe sleep . CerebellumThe little brain attached to the rearof the brainstem Ithelps coordinate.movements and The Limbic SystemThe Limbic Systemisadoughnut shapedsystem of neural.structures at theborder of thebrainstem andcerebrum associatedwith emotions such as.fear aggression anddrives for food andsex It includes thehippocampus amygdala and. The Limbic System Amygdala ah MIG dah la two almond shaped neural clusters that arecomponents of the limbic system and arelinked to emotion fear and aggression . http www youtube com watch v c... HippocampusMemory Involved in processing newEverything you learn filters throughhippocampus first .Clive Wearinghttp www youtube com watch v c... Hypothalamus neural structure below hypo the thalamus Basic. hunger thirst body temperature Sex drive libido helps govern the endocrine.system via the pituitary gland is linked to emotion Sometimes referred to asthe pleasure center Two Parts to Hypothalamus.Ventromedial Vomit Tellsyou when to stop eatingLateral Lets Eat Tells youwhen you are hungry Reward Center.Rats cross anelectrified grid forself stimulation whenelectrodes are placedin the reward. hypothalamus center top picture Sanjiv Talwar SUNY DownstateWhen the limbicmanipulated a rat.will navigate fields orclimb up a tree Hemispheres of the BrainLanguage and logicSpatial creative. Why do most strokes affectthe right side of the body Most strokes occur in the left hemisphere Cerebral Features Gyri Elevated ridges winding around the brain . Sulci Small grooves dividing the gyri Central Sulcus Divides the Frontal Lobe from the Parietal Lobe Fissures Deep grooves generally dividing largeregions lobes of the brain Longitudinal Fissure Divides the two Cerebral Hemispheres. Transverse Fissure Separates the Cerebrum from theCerebellum Sylvian Lateral Fissure Divides the Temporal Lobe from theFrontal and Parietal Lobes Gyri ridge . deep groove http williamcalvin com BrainFo... Cerebral Cortex The outermost layerof gray matter making up thesuperficial aspect of the cerebrum .Cerebral Cortexhttp www bioon com book biolog... The Cerebral Cortex Thin layer of densely packed neurons 0039 inch Cerebral Cortex. intricate fabric of interconnected neuralcells that covers the cerebralhemispheres 20 billion nerve cells body s ultimate control and informationprocessing center. The larger the cortex more adaptability capacity for learning Wrinkles fissures 3 sq ft w o them Perceiving thinking speaking Glial Cells. cells in the nervous system that support nourish and protect neurons Aka neuron nannies or glue cells The Cerebral Cortex Lobes of the Brain 4 .http www bioon com book biolog... 1 8 tif jpg Note Occasionally the Insula is considered the fifth lobe Itis located deep to the Temporal Lobe Lobes of the Brain Frontal.The Frontal Lobe of the brain is located deepto the Frontal Bone of the skull It plays an integral role in the followingfunctions actions Memory Formation. Emotions Decision Making Reasoning Personality Investigation PhineasInvestigation Phineas Gage .Modified from Lobes of the Brain Parietal LobeThe Parietal Lobe of the brain is locateddeep to the Parietal Bone of the skull It plays a major role in the following.functions actions Senses and integrates sensation s Spatial awareness and perception Proprioception Awareness ofbody body parts in space and.in relation to each other Modified from http www bioon com book biolog... Lobes of the Brain OccipitalThe Occipital Lobe of.the Brain is locateddeep to the OccipitalBone of the Skull Its primary function is theprocessing integration .interpretation etc ofVISION and visual stimuli Modified from http www bioon com book biolog... Lobes of the Brain Temporal.The Temporal Lobes are located on thesides of the brain deep to the TemporalBones of the skull They play an integralrole in the following.functions Organization Comprehension of InformationRetrieval Memory andMemory Formation .Modified from http www bioon com book biolog... The Cerebral CortexMotor Cortex at the rear of the frontal lobes controls voluntary. What parts of body occupy most cortical Fingers and mouth require most precise control Sensory Cortex at the front of the parietal lobes registersand processes body sensations. The more sensitive the body region themore area occupied in the sensory cortex The Cerebral Cortex Note Homunculus literally means little person and may refer to one whosebody shape is governed by the cortical area devoted to that body region .Q What do you notice about the proportionsdepicted in the aforementioned homunculus A They are not depicted in the same scale representative of thehuman body Q What is meant by depicting these.body parts in such outrageousproportions A These outrageous proportions depict the cortical areadevoted to each structure Ex Your hands require many intricate movements and.sensations to function properly This requires a great deal ofcortical surface area to control these detailed actions Your backis quite the opposite requiring limited cortical area to carry outits actions and functions or detect sensation The Cerebral Cortex. Functional MRIscan shows thevisual cortexactivated as thesubject looks at. Visual and Auditory Association Areas More intelligent animals have increased uncommitted or association areasof the cortex Association areas 75 of cortex. Interprets integrates and acts on info processed by sensory areas Associates sensory input with stored memories complex mystery Language and the Brain Broca s Area Location lower left frontal lobe. Major Function directs muscle movements making speech Speech Production Involved in the analyzing the grammaticalstructures of sentences. Composition Contains the motor neurons involved in thecontrol of speech Broca s AphasiaAphasia refers to the speech impairment caused by.brain damagePatients know what they want to say but have a hardtime getting it out Spoken sentences lack prepositions and conjunctionsThey are typically able to comprehend words and.produce sentences however they must be simplegrammatical sentences Reading and writing are not as affected however itcan be in some caseshttp www youtube com watch v f... . Wernickes AreaLeft temporal lobeMajor FunctionInvolved in the interpretation ofKnown as the language.comprehension centerVital for locating appropriatewords from memory to express Wernickes AphaciaTrouble with speech comprehension.Can t produce meaningful sentences Canstring together words but what they say isnonsensicalLeave out key words and substituterandom or invented words.Talk excessivelyhttp www youtube com watch v d... Specialization andIntegration Specialization and.Integration Brain activity when hearing seeing andspeaking words Brain Reorganization Plasticity. brain s capacity to modify itself brain reorganizes compensatesafter damage injury children have the most plasticity Example blind and braille one.finger used sense of touch invadesvisual cortex http www youtube com watch v 2MKNsI5CWoU Review Question.1 When stroking the face of someone who shand has been amputated why did thesubject feel the sensation not only on hisface but also on his amputated phantom Answer Hand area of the sensory cortex is no.longer used thus fibers from other sensoryareas invade the space Note that the handarea is between the face and arm regions ofthe sensory cortex In other words Plasticity . Plasticity Our Divided BrainSevered Corpus Callosumhttp www youtube com watch v l... Our Divided Brain.Corpus callosum Corpus large band ofneural fibers 200 000 000 . connects thehemispheres carriesbetween thehemispheres. billion pieces Our Divided Brain The informationhighway from theeye to the brain. Split Brain Isolate the 2hemispheres by cuttingthe connecting fibersbetween them corpus. To remedyuncontrollable epileptic Testing the splitbrain provesspecific functions of. The Split Brain ExperimentDr Gazzaniga 1967Stare at the Dot 1 Which word would the split brain patient verbalize seeing .2 Which word when asked topoint with his left hand wouldhe report seeing Why Split BrainExplain the following . The Split brain1 If this visual was shown to the righthemisphere of a split brain patient howmight the patient identify the object The Split Brain.Interesting facts about the split brain Subjects can simultaneously draw different figureswith the left and right hand When the 2 hemispheres are at odds the left willrationalize reactions it doesn t understand . The hemispheres are an odd couple each with a mind of its own The Split BrainWhich hemisphere is more activeSimple requests Right brain.Perceiving objects Right brainDecision making deliberative Left brainQuick intuitive responses Right brainRecognizing facesRight brain.Perceiving expressingemotion Right brain Hemispheric Differences in the IntactHemispheric specialization lateralizationBlood flow glucose brain waves detected between.hemispheres for perceptual tasks and speaking calculating tasks EEG PET FMRI AP Psychology Chapter 2. Techniques to Study the Brain. Brain lesions experimentally destroy brain tissue to study animal behaviors after such destruction. Usually done for scientific and medicinal purposes. Not done on humans â€“ unethical. Techniques to Study the Brain. Naturalistic Observation.