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2 What is your purpose for writing 3 Who is your audience These are not separate steps even though Inumber them 1 2 3 They are parts of a single step in which you have to.
ask yourself What am I going to write about it whois going to read it and why would they want or needto read it THE STEPS4 Gathering information .
Brainstorming Cluster diagrams Free writing THE STEPS5 Grouping.
Put the pieces from the brainstorming together intocoherent groups6 Ordering and outlining Put the details into a logical natural order Chronological .
Spatial Emphatic Make a detailed outline of the paragraph THE STEPS7 Write the first draft.
Make it look like a paragraph manuscript form Try different sentence structures and vocabulary8 Write the final draft Edit revise move change Make it better .
1 LIMIT NARROW THE TOPIC Find a topic or limit the topic that has been given Can you think of any specific examples of it Can it be used for anything specific Are there different types .
Are there special activities related to it Are specific people involved Is it associated with a specific place Are specific objects associated with it Take some time to really think about your topic.
Don t just choose something obvious and easy If it isn t interesting to you it won t be interestingto your audience But remember you re only writing one paragraph for now so make sure you can limit your.
interesting topic to one paragraph If you use these words as part of your limitedtopic or later in the grouping step you willalmost certainly have a very weak paragraph because these are obvious and easy .
These are acceptable only if you advantages of include what kind of disadvantages of dis advantage you are goingto write about good aspects of .
bad aspects of A very broad example Holiday s Examples Christmas Easter New Year etc Family gathering rest hobbies work .
Types religious secular government etc Activities meals travel festivals etc winter spring childhood specific instance etc .
People family friends Santa Claus etc Objects tree special foods presents cards etc By thinking of your topic in these ways you will.
be able to limit it appropriately so that you will beable to compose a short composition in our case one paragraph And you will have a head start on the pre writingand grouping steps of the process .
Remember paragraph topics are much morespecific than essay topics 2 AUDIENCE In an informal conversation we are concerned first of all with people and only to a minor extent.
with the texts they contribute We try to infer their state of mind their attitudes their feelings and their intentions from what theyWhenever we are in doubt we are able to probeinto their minds by reacting in a special way to.
what they say Speaker and hearer are both on thescene In what specialways can we reactwhen we are inFor written language this is not normally the case .
The author has to anticipate the reader sreactions The reader cannot question him or her He cannot even be sure about their authorship All the readers have is the text They areconcerned with the meaning of the text and not.
with the intentions of its authors Teubert 2005 9 But I meant It s too late once thereader has the text This relationship between writer and.
audience means that the writer has to have a veryclear idea of who his her audience is Logically if you don t know who your readers arethen you can t anticipate their reactions can you Without an audience imagined or real it would.
not make sense to formulate our thoughts Wewould not come up with new thoughts We wouldfind ourselves in a dead alley This is why we call solitary confinement torture Language is first of all a collective activity .
As Wittgenstein has argued there can be noprivate language Teubert 2005 8 Language is a social Decide who the intended imagined audience will be Be as specific as possible .
Are they Men or women Old or young logical combinations old men young men old women young Rich or poor .
Logical combinations rich young women poor old men etc What is their nationality What kinds of jobs do they have Is it a wide audience e g Westerners living in Korea or anarrow one Foreign teachers at CBNU .
This is the same partial list you see in your women athletes pet owners men o runners o cat owners rich o swimmers o dog owners poor o cyclists o fish owners .
middle class o weight lifters o etc working class o roller bladers exotic pet owners factory workers o golfers o snake owners office workers o bowlers etc o spider owners government employees gamers o etc .
retail workers o computer gamers single mothers doctors o board gamers single fathers lawyers o card gamers apartment renters teachers o strategy gamers apartment owners wealthy business people o chess players etc house owners.
small business owners hobbyists travelers unemployed university graduates o collectors o business travelers under employed recent university graduates coins o tourists part time employees stamps o solo entry level employees etc o group.
senior citizens o makers builders o family teenagers models expatriates children furniture and so on toddlers etc the middle aged enthusiasts enter virtually anything you.
millennials like in the blank Remember baby boomers stay at home mothers 1 This list is not complete generation x ers stay at home fathers 2 You can add more information if it is helpful generation y ers latch key kids professional drivers immigrants For example .
young drivers emigrants Senior citizens who want to learn a new skill senior citizen drivers introverts pessimistic job hunters who don t know that there are drivers in training extroverts many opportunities in other cities students pessimists mature students optimists.
realists Warning If you tell me your audience is Someone who Anyone who .
you will receive zero marks for audience You re not leaving your composition lying around waiting for someone or anyone topick it up If your audience is One person my friend my mother etc .
My family You will probably receive zero marks for audience When was the last time you wrote an essay for your friend or family toRemember to ask yourself Is the limited topic appropriate for that audience .
Does a lawyer need you to explain the law to him her Does a chef need to know how to prepare cup noodles Who is a good audience for the topic School Uniforms Students probably not a good choice Teachers .
Parents Principles Government officials In fact this topic is still too broad so it is very difficult tochoose an appropriate audience .
How much does your audience already know aboutyour topic A chef probably does not need to know how to preparecup noodles but he she might be interested in Nutritional values fat salt etc .
History of the product Variations adding egg cheese onion etc Why would your audience want to read yourcomposition What do they want to know aboutyour limited topic .
Actively reading a composition takes time and effort You should respect your audience by giving themsomething they would want to read Which leads us to the next step in the process 3 PURPOSE.
Decide on the purpose of the compositionThe basic purposes of the 4 discourse modes 1 Expository to give information2 Descriptive to describe3 Persuasive to persuade argue convince.
4 Narrative to tell a storyHowever These basic purposes are just starting points Weneed to go further and ask ourselves why we areexplaining this topic to this audience specifically .
Example If my topic is the true meaning ofChristmas and my audience is Western childrenwho think that Christmas is just a time to get lotsof presents the purpose could be to explain thatChristmas is a very important holiday with a very.
long spiritual history because I met a middle school student who got one musiccd for Christmas and he was very happy with it I know that if a Canadian middle school student gotonly one cd for Christmas he or she would be very.
angry sad upset I have many nieces and nephewsand my friends in Canada all have kids So this topic and audience are personally interesting and important to me See the book for more about purpose .
4 PRE WRITING Brainstorming Free writing Clu... Diagram Thinking is neither linear nor direct but theparagraph has to be both linear and direct Suspicions.
We begin the process oforganizing our thoughts bywriting them down as quicklyand simply as we can Write as many ideas as you can .
This means you have to really put some effort into it Don t stop and think about Even if it a bad idea write it down Even if you think you will never use it write it Don t write sentences .
This applies to brainstorming and cluster diagrams Don t worry about grammatically correct sentenceswhen you do free writing Use point form Topic Studying abroad.
I think studying abroad is expensive Expensive It can be lonely when a student is away from his or her friends and family lonely Finally .
Don t use your dictionaries Don t use your erasers BRAINSTORMING Hamburgers Hotdogs.
Bananaso Convenient snackAt this point I realize thatlisting foods is not helpfulat all I need to start.
thinking about why thesefoods are in my list I beginto add supportinginformation Hamburgers.
HotdogsAt this point I realized Bananas that listing foods is noto Convenient snack helpful at all I needed to Fried chicken.
o Fatteningstart thinking about why Steak these foods were in mylist I began to addEasy to make.
Grapes supporting information o good with cheese ApplesThis is all still quiteo Easy boring but I don t stop .
o deliciouso Homemadeo favourite restaurant Peaches Indian curry.
o Hard to find in KoreaHmm This might beo Spicy something I can use Hamburgers Thai curry Hotdogs o Hard to find in Korea.
Bananas I start to think of other o Spicyo spicysnackConvenient foods that are hard Tacos to find in Korea Fried chicken o Hard to find in Korea.
o Fattening o Spicy Steak Broccoli Spaghetti Asparaguso EasyI m not done I keepto make o Expensive.
Grapes o Favourite vegetablegoing to see what else I Potatoeso can think of good with cheese Rice Apples French Bread.
o Easy o Good with pastao delicious o Good with cheese Pizza AHA This might be HummusHomemade o Hard to find in Koreao favourite restaurant o Hard to make .
Peaches o Chickpeas tahini Indian curry o garlico Hard to find in Korea o lemono Spicy Etc Hamburgers Thai curry.
Now I go back and startHotdogs o Hard to find in Korea Bananas o SpicytoConvenientthink about.
these TacosFried chicken in different ways o Hard to find in Koreao Fattening o Spicy Steak Restaurants None in Cheongju Broccoli.
Spaghetti Ingredients Some ingredients Asparagus Restaurants Horribleo hard to find Easy to make o Expensive taste in Cheongjuo Ingredients spices can Grapes Favourite vegetable.
be hard to find o Snack Potatoeso good with cheese Restaurants There are a Rice Apples few in Cheongju now French Breado Ingredients Fairly easy o Good with pasta.
to find the correcto delicious o Good with cheese Pizza Hummuso Homemade o Hard to find in Koreao favourite restaurant o Hard to make .
Peaches o Chickpeas tahiniRestaurants None that I know of o Indian curry garlicThe steps. Limit the topic. What is your purpose for writing? Who is your audience? These are not separate steps (even though I number them 1, 2, 3).. They are parts of a single step in which you have to ask yourself, “What am I going to write about it, who is going to read it, and why would they want or need to read it?”

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