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THE PROCESS, A D E M O N S T RAT I O N O F E A C H S T E P I N T H E C O M P O S I T I O N. PLANNING PROCESS, THE STEPS, 1 Limit the topic, 2 What is your purpose for writing . 3 Who is your audience , These are not separate steps even though I. number them 1 2 3 , They are parts of a single step in which you have to. ask yourself What am I going to write about it who. is going to read it and why would they want or need. to read it , THE STEPS, 4 Gathering information , Brainstorming.
Cluster diagrams, Free writing, THE STEPS, 5 Grouping. Put the pieces from the brainstorming together into. coherent groups, 6 Ordering and outlining, Put the details into a logical natural order. Chronological , Spatial , Emphatic , Make a detailed outline of the paragraph. THE STEPS, 7 Write the first draft, Make it look like a paragraph manuscript form . Try different sentence structures and vocabulary. 8 Write the final draft, Edit revise move change, Make it better .
1 LIMIT NARROW THE TOPIC, Find a topic or limit the topic that has been given. Can you think of any specific examples of it , Can it be used for anything specific . Are there different types , Are there special activities related to it . Are specific people involved , Is it associated with a specific place . Are specific objects associated with it , Take some time to really think about your topic.
Don t just choose something obvious and easy. If it isn t interesting to you it won t be interesting. to your audience , But remember you re only writing one paragraph. for now so make sure you can limit your, interesting topic to one paragraph . If you use these words as part of your limited. topic or later in the grouping step you will, almost certainly have a very weak paragraph. because these are obvious and easy , These are acceptable only if you. advantages of include what kind of, disadvantages of dis advantage you are going.
to write about , good aspects of , bad aspects of . A very broad example Holiday s , Examples , Christmas Easter New Year etc . Family gathering rest hobbies work , Types , religious secular government etc . Activities , meals travel festivals etc , winter spring childhood specific instance etc . People , family friends Santa Claus etc , Objects .
tree special foods presents cards etc , By thinking of your topic in these ways you will. be able to limit it appropriately so that you will be. able to compose a short composition in our case , one paragraph . And you will have a head start on the pre writing. and grouping steps of the process , Remember paragraph topics are much more. specific than essay topics , 2 AUDIENCE, In an informal conversation we are concerned . first of all with people and only to a minor extent. with the texts they contribute , We try to infer their state of mind their attitudes .
their feelings and their intentions from what they. Whenever we are in doubt we are able to probe, into their minds by reacting in a special way to. what they say Speaker and hearer are both on the, scene In what special. ways can we react, when we are in, For written language this is not normally the case . The author has to anticipate the reader s, reactions The reader cannot question him or her . He cannot even be sure about their authorship , All the readers have is the text They are.
concerned with the meaning of the text and not, with the intentions of its authors Teubert 2005 9 . But I meant , It s too late once the, reader has the text . This relationship between writer and, audience means that the writer has to have a very. clear idea of who his her audience is , Logically if you don t know who your readers are. then you can t anticipate their reactions can you . Without an audience imagined or real it would. not make sense to formulate our thoughts We, would not come up with new thoughts We would.
find ourselves in a dead alley , This is why we call solitary confinement torture . Language is first of all a collective activity , As Wittgenstein has argued there can be no. private language Teubert 2005 8 , Language is a social. Decide who the intended imagined audience will be . Be as specific as possible , Are they , Men or women . Old or young , logical combinations old men young men old women young.
Rich or poor , Logical combinations rich young women poor old men etc . What is their nationality , What kinds of jobs do they have . Is it a wide audience e g Westerners living in Korea or a. narrow one Foreign teachers at CBNU , This is the same partial list you see in your. women athletes pet owners, men o runners o cat owners . rich o swimmers o dog owners , poor o cyclists o fish owners .
middle class o weight lifters o etc , working class o roller bladers exotic pet owners. factory workers o golfers o snake owners , office workers o bowlers etc o spider owners . government employees gamers o etc , retail workers o computer gamers single mothers. doctors o board gamers single fathers, lawyers o card gamers apartment renters. teachers o strategy gamers apartment owners. wealthy business people o chess players etc house owners. small business owners hobbyists travelers. unemployed university graduates o collectors o business travelers. under employed recent university graduates coins o tourists. part time employees stamps o solo, entry level employees etc o group.
senior citizens o makers builders o family, teenagers models expatriates. children furniture and so on , toddlers etc , the middle aged enthusiasts enter virtually anything you. millennials like in the blank Remember , baby boomers stay at home mothers 1 This list is not complete . generation x ers stay at home fathers 2 You can add more information if it is helpful . generation y ers latch key kids, professional drivers immigrants For example . young drivers emigrants Senior citizens who want to learn a new skill . senior citizen drivers introverts pessimistic job hunters who don t know that there are. drivers in training extroverts many opportunities in other cities . students pessimists, mature students optimists, realists.
Warning , If you tell me your audience is , Someone who . Anyone who , you will receive zero marks for audience . You re not leaving your composition lying around waiting for someone or anyone to. pick it up , If your audience is , One person my friend my mother etc . My family , You will probably receive zero marks for audience . When was the last time you wrote an essay for your friend or family to. Remember to ask yourself , Is the limited topic appropriate for that audience .
Does a lawyer need you to explain the law to him her . Does a chef need to know how to prepare cup noodles . Who is a good audience for the topic School Uniforms . Students probably not a good choice , Teachers , Parents . Principles , Government officials , In fact this topic is still too broad so it is very difficult to. choose an appropriate audience , How much does your audience already know about. your topic , A chef probably does not need to know how to prepare. cup noodles but he she might be interested in . Nutritional values fat salt etc , History of the product.
Variations adding egg cheese onion etc , Why would your audience want to read your. composition What do they want to know about, your limited topic . Actively reading a composition takes time and effort . You should respect your audience by giving them. something they would want to read , Which leads us to the next step in the process . 3 PURPOSE, Decide on the purpose of the composition. The basic purposes of the 4 discourse modes , 1 Expository to give information.
2 Descriptive to describe, 3 Persuasive to persuade argue convince. 4 Narrative to tell a story, However , These basic purposes are just starting points We. need to go further and ask ourselves why we are, explaining this topic to this audience specifically . Example If my topic is the true meaning of, Christmas and my audience is Western children. who think that Christmas is just a time to get lots. of presents the purpose could be to explain that, Christmas is a very important holiday with a very.
long spiritual history because , I met a middle school student who got one music. cd for Christmas and he was very happy with it , I know that if a Canadian middle school student got. only one cd for Christmas he or she would be very. angry sad upset I have many nieces and nephews, and my friends in Canada all have kids . So this topic and audience are , personally interesting and important to me . See the book for more about purpose , 4 PRE WRITING.
Brainstorming Free writing Cluster Diagram, Thinking is neither linear nor direct but the. paragraph has to be both linear and direct , Suspicions. We begin the process of, organizing our thoughts by. writing them down as quickly, and simply as we can . Write as many ideas as you can , This means you have to really put some effort into it .
Don t stop and think about, Even if it a bad idea write it down . Even if you think you will never use it write it. Don t write sentences , This applies to brainstorming and cluster diagrams . Don t worry about grammatically correct sentences. when you do free writing , Use point form , Topic Studying abroad. I think studying abroad is expensive, Expensive, It can be lonely when a student is away from his or her friends and family. lonely, Finally , Don t use your dictionaries, Don t use your erasers.
BRAINSTORMING, Hamburgers, Hotdogs, Bananas, o Convenient snack. At this point I realize that, listing foods is not helpful. at all I need to start, thinking about why these, foods are in my list I begin. to add supporting, information , Hamburgers, Hotdogs. At this point I realized, Bananas that listing foods is not.
o Convenient snack helpful at all I needed to, Fried chicken. o Fattening, start thinking about why, Steak these foods were in my. list I began to add, Easy to make, Grapes supporting information . o good with cheese, Apples, This is all still quite. o Easy boring but I don t stop , o delicious, o Homemade.
o favourite restaurant , Peaches, Indian curry, o Hard to find in Korea. Hmm This might be, o Spicy something I can use , Hamburgers Thai curry. Hotdogs o Hard to find in Korea, Bananas I start to think of other o Spicy. o spicysnack, Convenient foods that are hard Tacos. to find in Korea , Fried chicken o Hard to find in Korea.
o Fattening o Spicy, Steak Broccoli, Spaghetti Asparagus. o EasyI m not done I keep, to make o Expensive, Grapes o Favourite vegetable. going to see what else I Potatoes, o can think of . good with cheese Rice, Apples French Bread, o Easy o Good with pasta. o delicious o Good with cheese, Pizza AHA This might be Hummus.
Homemade o Hard to find in Korea, o favourite restaurant o Hard to make . Peaches o Chickpeas tahini, Indian curry o garlic. o Hard to find in Korea o lemon, o Spicy Etc , Hamburgers Thai curry. Now I go back and start, Hotdogs o Hard to find in Korea. Bananas o Spicy, toConvenient, think about, these Tacos.
Fried chicken in different ways o Hard to find in Korea. o Fattening o Spicy, Steak Restaurants None in Cheongju . Broccoli, Spaghetti Ingredients Some ingredients Asparagus Restaurants Horrible. o hard to find , Easy to make o Expensive taste in Cheongju. o Ingredients spices can, Grapes Favourite vegetable. be hard to find , o Snack Potatoes, o good with cheese Restaurants There are a Rice.
Apples few in Cheongju now French Bread, o Ingredients Fairly easy o Good with pasta. to find the correct, o delicious o Good with cheese. Pizza Hummus, o Homemade o Hard to find in Korea, o favourite restaurant o Hard to make . Peaches o Chickpeas tahini, Restaurants None that I know of o. The steps. Limit the topic. What is your purpose for writing? Who is your audience? These are not separate steps (even though I number them 1, 2, 3).. They are parts of a single step in which you have to ask yourself, “What am I going to write about it, who is going to read it, and why would they want or need to read it?”

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