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Role of Toxicology inCriminal InvestigationsLyndsey Knoy D ABFT FTForensic ScientistWashington State Toxicology Laboratory.Lyndsey Knoy wsp wa gov What Is Forensic Toxicology Forensic Toxicology is an interdisciplinaryscience that analyzes blood fluid and ortissues for the presence of alcohol drugs or.poisons and applies the results of thatanalysis to answer the question Diddrugs and or alcohol contribute to aperson s impairment and or their death Washington State Toxicology.LaboratoryToxicology Breath Test DRELab Section Program Toxicology Laboratory Seattle laboratory.services WA AK OR State Toxicologist Fiona Couper Lab Manager Brianna Peterson. QA Manager Amanda Black Technical Lead Brianne O Reilly 2 Supervisors .Brian Capron Brittany 14 Toxicologists Support staff State Toxicology Lab Services Medical Examiners and Coroners. Death Investigations Law Enforcement Agencies DUI and DRE Drug Facilitated Sexual Assaults Liquor and Cannabis Control. Labor and Industry Cases HandledInvestigations Overdoses Suicides. Poisonings Traffic Fatalities Homicides Undetermined Cases Handled. PoliceInvestigations DUI DRE Drug Investigations Drug Endangered. Liquor and Cannabis Drug Facilitated Sexual Caseload 2017 15 947 cases We receive 1300 cases month 675 from AK 226 from OR. DUI DRE 10 272 Top Drugs of 2017 Ethanol THC COOH THC Methamphetamine amphetamine. Morphine LK 1 496 cases 2016 14 617 cases Court Testimony for 2017 1 529 hours for 308 appearances. LK 139 hours for 26 cases The Toxicology LabSample receipt and log in Data Analysis Create Report Bob Smith Former PEC Andrew Gingras Lab analysis. Katie Harris Agency ProsecutorExpert Testimony Sample Handling and1 Sample receipt and accession.2 Alcohol analysis3 Drug screen analysis4 Confirmation analysis5 Specialty drug analysis6 Prepare report.7 Review by supervisors and manager Receiving Samples US Postal Service Courier UPS FedEx Hand delivered. Campus mail Sample Receipt and Log In Logged in as they arrive by a PEC Photos are taken of mail packaging and evidence seals. Each sample checked for name agency case volume and tampering Each case receives a Unique identifier number eg ST 18 00001 . Maintains chain of custody Sample Receipt and Log In Each case entered in LIMS database ST is used to track samples in the laboratory Currently about 80 cases are received daily. Sample Handling and1 Sample receipt and accession2 Alcohol analysis3 Drug screen analysis4 Confirmation analysis.5 Specialty drug analysis6 Prepare report7 Review by supervisors and manager Blood Alcohol Forensiccollection of sample. Gray top tube Preservative NaF anticoagulant C2K2O4 FDA Regulated Certificates from the.manufacturer Experts can testify to hearsay Samples are not clotted Vacuum Expiration Date refers to. Ethanol Analysis All samples are testedfor alcohol ethanol Head Space GasChromatography. Run in duplicate Two aliquots Two instruments Different columns Different temperature. Calibrators for each run Control and negativeevery ten samples Ethanol Analysis Alcohol is a volatile. When heated volatilesenter the vapor phase Vapor is injected onto along thin column Compounds on column.separated by physical chemical properties size shape volatility charge Ethanol has a uniqueretention time. Distinguishes betweenethanol and other Isopropanol from swabs Acetone from diabetes GC Analysis of Volatile Mix. Review of Results Calibration curve for both instruments r2 0 99 Controls must be within 10 of the target Blank cannot contain any peaks. Results from each case must agree within10 of the mean from both results Check for other volatiles in sample Sample Handling and1 Sample receipt and accession.2 Alcohol analysis3 Drug screen analysis4 Confirmation analysis5 Specialty drug analysis6 Prepare report.7 Review by supervisors and manager Drug Screening Enzyme MultipliedImmunoassay Technique EMIT Chemical lock and key test Qualitative. Class not compound specific Rule in rule out for major CNS drugcategories Each drug has cut off level Blood cut off urine cut off. Drugs may be present below cut off EMIT Screening 6 classes screened Cocaine metabolite Opiates. Benzodiazepines Barbiturates Cannabinoids Amphetamines 4 classes screened for urine. amphetamines and cannabinoids omitted Zolpidem Diphenhydramine Dextromethorphan Certain benzodiazepines Lorazepam .Clonazepam Fentanyl Acidic Neutral drugs Anti seizures Soma Most synthetics bath salts syntheticcannabinoids. SSRI drugs Citalopram Fluoxetine Paroxetine Venlafaxine Sertraline Most antipsychotics Blood Drug Screen Blood specimens require.extraction procedure Calibrators controls and blankextracted with each set Positive results must be BDS Drug Screen. Alkaline basic drug Samples are extractedthrough a series of Calibrators controls andblanks extracted. Purifies andconcentrates drugs BDS Drug Screen Analysis by Gas Chromatography MassSpectrometry GC MS and GC NPD . Separates drugs based on unique chemicalproperties Provides unique chemical fingerprint for drugs Extracted Sample Through GC MS BDS Drug Screen. Not absolutely comprehensive Also has a cut off more sensitive than immunoassay distinguish specific member of drug class Drugs may be present below cut off Drugs not confirmed reported as not detected. Sample Handling and1 Sample receipt and accession2 Alcohol analysis3 Drug Screen analysis4 Confirmation analysis.5 Specialty drug analysis6 Prepare report7 Review by supervisors and manager Drug Confirmation1 Extraction of Sample.2 Analysis of sample using GC MS GC FID LCMS LCMSMS Sample Handling and1 Sample receipt and accession2 Alcohol analysis.3 Drug screen analysis4 Confirmation analysis5 Specialty drug analysis6 Prepare report7 Review by supervisors and manager. Specialty Tests for Drugs Some drugs require special extractions for Cocaine metabolites Some Opiates morphine hydromorphone Some Benzodiazepines clonazepam . Confirmation by GC MS LC MS or LC Method of extraction and analysisallows greater sensitivity Special Assays Analysts must be certified for analysis of these. Typically solid phase extraction SPE Blank calibrators controls extracted with each set LOQs for Special Analytes THC 1 ng mL Zolpidem 0 01 mg L. Cocaine BZE cocaethylene 0 01 mg L Methadone 0 01 mg L PCP 0 01 mg L Amines 0 01 mg L includes amphetamine methamphetamine MDA MDMA. Barbiturates 0 5 mg L includes amobarbital phenobarbital pentobarbital secobarbital butalbital Opiates morphine oxymorphone oxycodone codeine hydrocodone 0 01 mg L hydromorphone 6 AM 2 ng mL Benzodiazepines 0 01 mg L for diazepam temazepam .nordiazepam zopiclone alprazolam clonazepam lorazepam oxazepam midazolam chlordiazepoxide triazolam flurazepam flunitrazepam 0 02 mg L for quetiapine Testing for Designer Drugs Currently WSTL does not have testing.protocols for designer drugs Cases sent to two contract laboratories NMS Labs Pennsylvania AIT Laboratories Indiana Cases will be sent to contract lab if.indicated on request form and no otherdrug s is detected Storage of Samples Refrigerated whilenot testing. Samples removedfrom fridge onlywhile preparing for Evidencemaintained in locked.personal fridges orin evidence vault Sample Handling and1 Sample receipt and accession2 Alcohol analysis.3 Drug Screen analysis4 Confirmation analysis5 Specialty drug analysis6 Preparation of report7 Review by supervisors and manager. Data Analysis Review all data files from sequence Blanks are blank Negatives have ISTD Calibration curve is acceptable R 2 0 99 . Controls are within range Identify quantifies drug s presentdata is reviewed byother analysts and orsupervisors. Preparation of Report Reportprepared after all testing is completedfor each specific case All batches of data peer and supervisorreviewed prior to release. All compounds present above level ofquantitation are reported 2 tests screened and confirmed Retention time matched and fingerprint ID Quantitative vs Qualitative. Quantitative gives value of drug present in blood 0 04 mg L or 3 ng mL Qualitative Positive without level Parent drug and metabolites can be reported Metabolites may or may not be active. Analyst dates andmethodology Any test notperformed by theprimary analyst is.indicated belowthe specific test TWO pages or Agency owns Quality Control Quality. Quality Assurance Record keeping compliance with SOPs corrective Quality Control Proficiency testing CAP and WSLH accuracy of QA QC system assures results are accurate .precise and meaningful Calibration Lab accredited by ASCLD LAB Tox Lab accredited by ABFT and ASCLD LAB Other Duties Testimony . Entire state Breath and blood Alaska Blood Oregon Blood Instrument maintenance Continuing Education workshops seminars conferences. Educating the public high schools attorney conferences continuing ed for police agencies legislature Questions Concerns Contact us 206 262 6100.toxlab wsp wa govLyndsey Knoy wsp wa govTox Lab accredited by ABFT and ASCLD/LAB. Quality Control/Quality Assurance. Testimony! Entire state- Breath and blood. Alaska- Blood. Oregon- Blood. Instrument maintenance. Continuing Education workshops, seminars, conferences. Educating the public high schools, attorney conferences, continuing ed for police agencies, legislature.