THM 244 Food Production Techniques THS 221 Food Production I

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Cakes and Icings Contents Content 2 Cakes and Icing 3 Basic Mixing Methods 4.
Two Stage Method 5 Baking and Cooling 11 Cake Formulas 13 Brown Sugar Spice Cake 14 Chocolate Butter Cake 15.
Old Fashioned Pound Cake 16 Old Fashioned Raisin Pound Cake 17 Chocolate Pound Cake 18 Two Stage Method 19 Devils Food Cake 20.
Foaming Methods 21 Chocolate Genoise 22 Sponge Roll or Jelly Roll Sponge 23 Milk and Butter Sponge 24 Jelly Roll Sponge 25.
Yellow Chiffon Cake 26 Chocolate Chiffon Cake 27 Angel Food Cake 28 Chocolate Angel Food Cake 29 Icings Production and Application 30.
BUTTERCREAMS 31 Decorator s Buttercream 32 Meringue Type Buttercream 33 Chocolate Buttercream 34 FOAM TYPE ICINGS 35.
Caramel Fudge Icing 36 Cocoa Fudge Icing 37 ROYAL ICING 38 Assembling and Icing Cakes 41 Cake and Icing 42.
Terms Questions 42 Cakes and IcingsCakes are the richest and sweetest ofall the baked products we have studiedso far From the baker s point of view .
producing cakes requires as muchprecision as producing breads but forcompletely opposite reasons Breadsare lean products that require stronggluten development and careful control.
of yeast action during the longfermentation and proofing periods Cakes on the other hand are high inboth fat and sugar The baker s job is tocreate a structure that will support.
these ingredients and yet keep it aslight and delicate as possible Fortunately producing cakes inquantity is relatively easy if the bakerhas good well balanced formulas .
scales ingredients accurately andunderstands basic mixing methodsCakes owe their popularity to theirrichness and sweetness but also totheir versatility .
Cakes can be present ed in manyforms from simple sheet cakes incafeterias to elaborately deco ratedworks of art for weddings and otherimportant occasions With only a few.
basic formulas and a variety of icings the chef or baker can construct theperfect dessert for any occasion or Basic Mixing MethodsAfter reading this chapter you should be able to.
1 Perform basic cake mixing methods 2 Understand the characteristics of basic cake types 3 Produce both high fat or shortened cakes and low fat or foam type cakes 4 Prepare basic icings 5 Assemble and ice cakes .
Understanding Cake MakingBasic Mixing Methods The mixing methods presented in this chapter are the basic ones for most types of cakes prepared in the modernbakeshop Each of these methods is used for particular types of formulas High fat or shortened cakes .
Creaming method Two stage or blending method Low fat or foam type cakes Foaming or sponge method Angel food method .
Chiffon method We will discuss these cake types in detail after you have had a chance to study the actual procedures CREAMING METHODThis method also called the conventional method was for a long time the standard method for mixing butter cakes Recently the development of emulsified or high ratio shortenings has led to the development of simpler mixing.
methods for shortened cakes But the creaming method is still used for many types of butter cakes 1 Scale ingredients accurately Have all ingredients at room temperature 2 Place the butter or shortening in the mixing bowl With the paddle attachment beat slowly until the fat is smoothand creamy 3 Add the sugar Cream the mixture at moderate speed until the mixture is light and fluffy .
Some bakers prefer to add the salt and flavorings with the sugar to ensure uniform distribution If melted chocolate is used it is added during creaming 4 Add the eggs a little at a time After each addition beat until the eggs are absorbed before adding more Themixture should be light and fluffy after the eggs are beaten in 5 Scrape down the sides of the bowl to ensure even mixing .
6 Add the sifted dry ingredients including the spices if they were not added in step 3 alternating with the liquids This is done as follows a Add one fourth of the dry ingredients Mix just until blended in b Add one third of the liquid Mix just until blended in c Repeat until all ingredients are used Scrape down the sides of the bowl occasionally for even mixing .
The reason for adding dry and liquids alternately is that the batter may not absorb all the liquid unless some of theflour is present to aid in absorption Cocoa if used is included with the flour TWO STAGE METHODTWO STAGE METHODThis method also called the blending method was developed for use with modern high ratio shortenings see.
Bake Shop Basic Principles and Ingredients It is simpler than the creaming method but produces a very smooth batterthat bakes up into a fine grained moist cake It is called two stage because the liquids are added in two stages 1 Scale ingredients accurately Have all ingredients at room temperature 2 Sift the flour baking powder soda and salt into the mixing bowl and add the shortening With the paddle attachment mix at low speed for 2 minutes Stop the machine scrape down the bowl and beater and mix again for 2 minutes .
If melted chocolate is used blend it in during this step If cocoa is used sift it with the flour in this step or with the sugar in step 3 3 Sift the remaining dry ingredients into the bowl and add part of the water or milk Blend at low speed for 3 to 5minutes Scrape down the sides of the bowl and the beater several times to ensure even mixing 4 Combine the remaining liquids and lightly beaten eggs With the mixer running add this mixture to the batter in.
three parts After each part turn off the machine and scrape down the bowl Continue mixing for a total of 5 minutes in this stage The finished batter will normally be quite liquid This variation combines steps 2 and 3 above into one step 1 Scale ingredients as in basic method 2 Sift all dry ingredients into the mixing bowl Add the shortening and part of the liquid Mix on low speed.
for 7 to 8 minutes Scrape down the sides of the bowl and the beater several times 3 Continue with step 4 in the basic procedure FOAMING OR SPONGE METHODAll egg foam cakes are similar in that they contain little or no shortening and depend for most or all of theirleavening on the air trapped in beaten eggs .
One mixing method is usually presented as the basic method for all foam cakes However since whole egg foamsand egg yolk foams are handled differently from egg white foams we will discuss two separate although similar methods A third method for chiffon cakes is somewhat unusu al It combines an egg white foam with a high fatbatter made with oil First the method for sponge cakes .
1 Scale ingredients accurately Have all ingredients at room temperature If butter is included it must be melted If liquid and butter are included heat them together just until the butter is2 Combine the eggs and sugar and warm to about 110 F 43 C This may be done in one of two ways a Stir the egg sugar mixture over a hot water bath b Warm the sugar on a sheet pan in the oven do not get it too hot and gradually beat it into the eggs .
The reason for this step is that the foam will attain greater volume if warm 3 With the whip attachment beat the eggs at high speed until very light and thick This may take 10 to 15 minutes This step is very important One of the most frequent causes of failure in the sponge method is not whipping the eggs andsugar enough The foam must be very thick When the beater is lifted from the bowl the foam falls slowly from it and makesribbon that slowly sinks into the batter in the bowl .
4 Fold in the sifted flour being careful not to deflate the foam Many bakers do this by hand If other dry ingredients are used such as cornstarch or baking powder they are first sifted with the flour 5 If melted butter or a butter liquid mixture is being used fold in at this point Be careful not to overmix or the cakewill be tough because of developed gluten 6 Immediately pan and bake the batter Delays will cause loss of volume .
VariationsSome formulas contain water or some other liquid but no butter so you cannot heat the liquid and butter together asin the basic procedure In this case the liquid is usually added after step 3 and before folding in the flour Either whipit in a steady stream or stir it in as indicated in the recipe In some formulas the egg yolks and whites are separated Use the yolks and part of the sugar to make the foam in.
steps 2 and 3 Use the remaining sugar to whip with the whites Fold the egg white foam into the batter after step 5 ANGEL FOOD METHODAngel food cakes are based on egg white foams and contain no fat 1 Scale ingredients accurately Have all ingredients at room temperature The egg whites may be slightly warmed forachieving better volume .
2 Sift the flour with half the sugar This step helps the flour mix more evenly with the foam 3 Beat the egg whites using the whip attachment until they form soft peaks Salt and cream of tartar are added nearthe beginning of the beating process 4 Gradually beat in the sugar that was not mixed with the flour Continue to beat until the egg whites form soft glossy peaks Do not overheat .
5 Fold in the flour sugar mixture just until it is thoroughly absorbed but no longer 6 Pan and bake immediately CHIFFON METHODChiffon cakes and angel food cakes are both based on egg white foams But here the similarities in the mixingmethods end In angel food cakes a dry flour sugar mixture is folded into the egg whites But in chiffon cakes a.
batter containing flour egg yolks vegetable oil and water is folded into the whites Egg whites for chiffon cakes should be whipped until they are a little firmer than those for angel food cakes but donot overwhip them until they are dry Chiffon cakes contain baking powder so they do not depend on the egg foamfor all their leavening 1 Scale all ingredients accurately Have all ingredients at room temperature Use a good quality flavorless vegetable oil .
2 Sift the dry ingredients including part of the sugar into the mixing bowl 3 Mixing with the paddle attachment at second speed gradually add the oil then the egg yolks water and liq uidflavorings all in a slow steady stream While adding the liquids stop the machine several times and scrape down thebowl and the beater Mix until smooth but do not overmix 4 Whip the egg whites until they form soft peaks Add the cream of tartar and sugar in a stream and whip to firm .
5 Fold the whipped egg whites into the flour liquid mixture 6 Immediately deposit batter in ungreased centertube pans like angel food cakes or in layer pans that have had thebottoms greased and dusted but not the sides like sponge layers PREPARED MIXESMany mixes are available that contain all ingredients except water and sometimes egg These products also.
added emulsifiers to ensure even blending of ingredients To use them follow the package instructions exactly Most mixes produce cakes with excellent volume tex ture and tenderness Whether or not they also taste good is amatter of opinion On the other hand cakes made from scratch are not necessarily better They will be better only ifthey are carefully mixed and baked and prepared from good tested formulas using quality ingredients Cake Formula Types.
The proper mixing method for a particular formula depends on the balance of ingredients A baker can look at theingredients in a formula and know immediately which mixing method to use If fat is high use creaming method or two stage method Two stage method may be used if the percentage of sugar is over 100 percent and if the fat is emulsified shortening In other cases the creaming method is used .
If fat is low and eggs and sugar are high use an egg foam method HIGH FAT CAKESThe creaming method s major disadvantage is the labor it requires The two stage method is quicker but because theCombine the sugar syrup, light cream , and salt in a saucepan. Bring to a boil, stirring to dissolve the sugar. Boil the mixture until it reaches 240°F (115°C). 2. While the sugar is cooking, mix the fat, sugar until evenly combined, using the paddle attachment of the mixer. 3. With the machine running at low speed, very slowly pour in the ...

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