Ultra High Speed InP Heterojunction Bipolar Transistors

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Ultra High Speed InP Heterojunction Bipolar TransistorsMattias Dahlstr mTrouble is my business Raymond Chandler Ultra High Speed InP Heterojunction Bipolar Transistors Introduction to HBT s.
How to make a fast HBT Delay terms The graded base The base collector grade Recent results.
Record fmax mesa DHBT Record f DHBT details regarding this to follow The transistorSmall change in base current .
large change in collector currentI in 200 A steps 60 0 5 1 1 5 2 2 5Schematic of an HBT Typical common emittercharacteristics.
InP lattice structureNearest neighbor Lattice constant InP and InGaAs have L separations of 0 65 eV vs 0 4 eV for GaAs larger collector velocityInGaAs has a low electron effective mass lower base transit time.
Objectives and approachObjectives fast HBTs mm wave power 160 Gb fiber opticsdesired 440 GHz ft fmax 10 mA m2 Ccb Ic 0 5 ps Vbetter manufacturability than transferred substrate HBTs.
improved performance over transferred substrate HBTsnarrow base mesa moderately low Ccbvery low base contact resistance required and good alignment carbon base doping good base contact processhigh ft through high current density thin layers.
bandgap engineering small device transit time with wide bandgap emitter and collector Potential uses of InP HBTCommunication systems wireless communication fiber optics transceivers .
digital processing in radar ADCs DACs Types of circuits broadband amplifiers power amplifiers laser modulator drivers comparators latches fast logicCircuit characteristics.
1 10 000 HBTs per IC Very high demands for speed 40 200 GHz Fast logic with moderate power consumption 20 mW gate Moderate Output Powermmwave power amps optical modulator drivers.
6 V at Jc 4 mA m2 2 V at Jc 8 mA m2 DHBT band diagram under bias0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 400Distance High speed HBT some standard figures of merit.
Small signal current gain cut off frequency from H21 b c C je Cbc Rex Rc Cbc2 f qI c Maximum power gain from U .
8 RbbCbci Collector capacitance charging time when switching V Scaling laws for fast HBTsfor x 2 improvement of all parasitics .
ft fmax logic speed base 2 1 thinner transferred substratecollector 2 1 thinneremitter collector junctions 4 1 narrowercurrent density 4 1 higher.
emitter Ohmic 4 1 less resistiveChallenges with Scaling mesa HBT collector under base Ohmics narrow collector mesaBase Ohmics must be one transfer length emitter.
base contactsets minimum size for collector undercutcollector junctionEmitter Ohmic InGaAs baseInP collector contact.
hard to improve how InGaAs subcollectorCurrent Density InP subcollectordissipation reliability SI substrateLoss of breakdown.
avalanche Vbr never less than collector Eg 1 12 V for Si 1 4 V for InP sufficient for logic insufficient for power Contact resistance tunneling through barrierTheory idealized contact .
xd 2m exp Ebarrier 1 2 Vbi 2m exp .
qN d Ebarrier High doping 1 9 1019 cm 3 Small bandgap InAs InGaAs InP GaN Surface preparation .
no interstitial oxide Metal reactions Pd based contactsOhmic contact to p type material 10 100 times worse than n type Work function line up electron hole effective mass.
Pd Pt reacts with III Vsemiconductor InGaAs Pd As In Ga Pd In Ga Pd As Pd reaction depth 4 x thickness.
25 Pd for 300 base Contact resistance Yu J S Kim S H Kim T I PtTiPtAu and PdTiPtAu ohmic contactsto p InGaAs Proceedings of the IEEE Twenty Fourth International100 500 m2 1 20 m2 Symposium on Compound Semiconductors San Diego CA USA 8 11Sept 1997.
from TLM and RF extraction Emitter resistance b c C je Cbc Rex Rc Cbc2 f qI c Emitter resistance grades removed.
cap layer InP 15 0 8 emitterlight doping0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 400Distance .
Contact resistance 0 electrons50 m2 25 m2 15 m2High doping 3 1019 cm 3heavy doping No InGaAs InP grade necessary at.
0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 400 very high dopingDistance At degenerate doping levels Thin undepleted n emittergrades are not necessarySmall emitter area increases Rex.
Base resistanceRbb Rb cont Rgap Rspreadf max Rb cont s c 2 Le8 RbbCbciRgap sWgap 2 Le.
Rspread sWe 12 LeTLM measurementRbb is a critical parameter for fmax and in npn HBT the base contact resistance dominates Rbb is minimized through high base doping and improved base.
contact metallization small undercut Wgap and long emitter Le Problems with very thin bases Etching and depletion effects reduce the effective basethickness Tb and increases the base resistance At 500 nm scaling generation best base thickness is 30 40 nm.
better fmax lower Rbb related delay terms in gate delay minimal improvement in f between 25 30 nmHigh resistance Increase of sheet resistance with thin baseRb extrinsic 800 1000 sq.
Rb intrinsic 600 750 sqRb intrinsicTb extrinsic Tb intrinsic 0 5 xd 2 sVbi 10.
14 Rb extrinsicBase surface exposed T Tb extrinsic Tb intrinsic 51 A0 50 100 150 200 250 300Distance .
InGaAs base doped 6 1019 cm 3 surface pinned at 0 18 eV Base protected by E B gradeSurface depletion decreases base thickness 40 contacts diffused through 160 grade T Tb extrinsic Tb intrinsic 17 A.
Surface depletionWet etching Collector resistance b c C je Cbc Rex Rc Cbc2 f qI c.
Rc access resistance between collector contact and the mesa Minimized by large collector contacts and low resistancesubcollector Subcollector design minimize electrical resistance Tsubc.
minimize thermal resistance limit thickness to improvemanufacturabilityThermal conductivity of InGaAs 5 W mK Etch stop layer providesThermal conductivity of InP 68 W mK collector undercut less Cbc.
Some still use all InGaAs subcollector Subcollector resistivity500 A InGaAs 2000 A InP 11 sq125 A InGaAs 3000 A InP 9 sq 53 of thermal resistance.
Etching selectivity of InGaAs vs InP main limit 50 A InGaAsContact resistance better to 125 A than 50 A after annealing Base emitter capacitance b c C je Cbc Rex Rc Cbc2 f qI c.
Cje is the junction capacitance between the emitter and baseCje corresponds to 100 depletion thicknessMinimized by shrinking the emitter areaat fixed or at increasing current Ic Base collector capacitance.
b c C je Cbc Rex Rc Cbc2 f qI cCbc is the junction capacitance between the base andsubcollector Base collector capacitance.
Collector thickness reduced Breakdown limits thicknessdue to speed requirements Thickness A Breakdown V Cbc 2150 7 5Ccb increases 1500 4 5.
Thick collectors Vbr TcTc 3000 A 2150 A 1500 A Thin collectorsVbr E gap InP qAbc must be kept small .
Very thin collectors narrow emitter Vbr limited by tunnelling narrow base contactsVbr decreases at high J undercut of base contacts.
destruction by heating thermal instability implant or regrowth Theory of the baseIf gain is limited by Auger recombination in the base .
2k BTA R e baseThe base sheet resistance 1q h base N a TbThe base transit time b 2 Dn base.
Decreasing b increases High Na and Tb for low s decreases is 10 50 Grade gives 30 50 improvement ps is 400 900 sq b calc is 100 250 fs Base Transit Time.
Fitting of relevant parameters of the formKroemer s double integral d f x e Az B Drift Diffusion equation for base current J n q n nWith doping as.
Q n x N a z 2 N a e N a 1 z N a 2 b b dx iN a x Dz z ni2 z Intrinsic carrier concentrationni2 e Ni1z Ni 2 .
Exit term DiffusivityD e D1z D2 N a Tb ni2 x exit Tb vexitN a x ni2 Tb Ballistic injection Tb.
Solution used for evaluation of the base transit time e D1 Wb D 2 N a1 e D1 Wb D 2 D1 e D1 Wb D 2 N i1 N i1 e D2 N a1 e D2 D1 e Ni1 Wb D 2 D1 Wb N a1 Wb b int D1 N i1 N a1 D1 N i1 N a1 N a Tb e Ni1Tb Ni2 N a1Tb Na2 e Ni2 N a2 .
exit v s n i2 Tb N i1 N a1 Base gradingGraded bandgap Graded dopingChange in In Ga ratio Doping 8 5 1019 cm 3.
InAs Eg 0 36 eVGaAs Eg 1 43 eV Base grading induced electric fieldLimits strain Limits Bandgap narrowing needs degenerate doping.
Induced electric field accelerates electrons towardscollector decreases base transit time and increases gain The effect of degenerate dopingStrong variation inFermi level with.
doping at highdoping levelsObserved Vbe increaseVon bi increases with EvNb 4 1019cm3 0 75 V.
Nb 8 1019cm3 0 83 Vfor graded base emitter Base bandgap narrowingBandgap gradeModel after V Pavlanovski Doping grade.
BGN provides an electric fieldopposing the doping induced field 1 5 in magnitude Base Transit time b c C je Cbc Rex Rc Cbc.
2 f qI cBase transit timebandgap grade Ballistic effects may arise whenTb 180 200 5 1019 cm 3Base transit time ps .
1 doping grade Tessier Ito Bandgap grade anddoping grade give same200 300 400 500 600 700 800 900 1000Base thickness A .
Results Bandgap graded Doping gradedDC gain 25 18ft 250 GHz 282 GHz Collector design b c C je Cbc Rex Rc Cbc.
2 f qI cGrade No GradeTransit time c 2veffectiveClose inspection show velocity 1.
near base most important c dx Use gradev x Use setback Base collector gradeEarly grade designs Too coarse.
No setback layerf 128 GHz Tc 3000 A Distance Jkirk 1 3 mA m2Recent grade designs .
0 15 A periodv 200 A setback layerf 282 GHz Tc 2150 A Distance Jkirk 4 mA m2.
InAlAs InGaAs super lattice Why super lattice MBE is more suited for super lattice thanquaternaries InP InGaAs gives poor quality material due to.
phosphorous arsenic intermixing MOCVD growth InGaAsP grade GaAsSb base needs no grade Quantum mechanical trapping in grade Quantum well trapping.
Electron hole in the InGaAs well 500 meV InAlAs potential barrierA rough approximation the infinite potential well 2 2 n 2 n 1 2 3 .
If En 500 meV InGaAs InAlAs potential no electronconfinement 31 A is the maximum allowed InGaAs width by this model The delta dopingH Kroemer a conduction band difference can be offset with a.
grade and a delta doping r EcN T 2No delta doping Vbc 0 3 VDelta doping.
With this choice the conduction band will be smooth The setback layer An InGaAs layer beneath the base Margin for Base dopant diffusion Increases Electron speed at SL.
No setback Vbc 0 3 V Collector design dopingCircuit designer will want a fully depleted collector low Ccb at some minimum specified Vcb min e g 0 0 Volts in ECL This specifies the maximum allowable collector doping.
2 Vcb N d max Collector design velocity and scatteringCollector band profile designed for greatestpossible distance without L scattering.
No L Lscattering scattering Collector under current simulation Current blocking 0 5 J 1mA.
1 5 J 7mA0 100 200 300 400Position A Nc reduced by Jc q vsat Metal resistance.
Resistance of e beam deposited metals higher than book values Metal resistance increases when T 1000 A TiPdAu 200 400 9000 A PdTiPdAu 30 200 400 600 AAu cm .
TiPdAu 200 400 4000 A2 4 Reduces fmax2 2 Thermal stability 0 500 1000 1500 2000 2500 3000 3500Gold thickness .
Problem for base contact PdTiPdAu with 600 A gold sm 0 5 sq 3 8 added to RbbT. C/a. fF/um^2. Rex. Tau_ec. fs. RexCcb. I. RexClay. kT/q. kT/qI times ... taken at 5 GHz. Emitter metal area. Rexmetal. ... Wingdings Tahoma Ianstemplate KaleidaGraph Plot Microsoft Equation 3.0 Microsoft Excel Worksheet Ultra High Speed InP Heterojunction Bipolar Transistors Ultra High Speed InP Heterojunction Bipolar Transistors The ...

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