Unit 14: Social Psychology

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SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY14 Stereotyp Primacy CognitiveSelf FundamentaSOCIAL es Effect DissonanServing l Attribution.
Error PSYCHOLOGPSYCHOLOG cehere Attitude Attitude Foot in explain Social Formation.
others Cognitio andbehavio n changechange Routes tor Persuasi Persuasi Persuasio.
Just World on Individualistic vs Hypothesi Collectivistic Cultures Social AttractioBehavior n.
deindividuation the self fulfilling In Group Impact Out Groupbystander effect ofsocial facilitation Others.
Others Treatment ofgroup Othersthe members onPerson GroupConformit Group Group.
Compliance Polarization Think SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY The scientific study of the ways inwhich the thoughts feelings andbehaviors of one individual are.
influenced by the real imagined orinferred behavior or characteristicsof other people Major Topics How you think about people.
How you explain their behavior SOCIAL THINKING14 Stereotyp Primacy CognitiveSelf FundamentaSOCIAL es Effect Dissonan.
Serving l AttributionError PSYCHOLOGPSYCHOLOG cehere Attitude Attitude Foot in.
explain Social Formationothers Cognitio andbehavio n changechange Routes tor Persuasi.
Persuasi PersuasioJust World on Individualistic vs Hypothesi Collectivistic Cultures Social Attractio.
Behavior ndeindividuation the self fulfilling In Group Impact Out Groupbystander effect of.
social facilitation OthersOthers Treatment ofgroup Othersthe members onPerson Group.
Conformit Group GroupCompliance Polarization Think ATTRIBUTION WHY DID HE Attribution Theory tries to explainhow people make judgments about.
the causes of other people s Three criteria used to judge behavior Distinctiveness Is this how the persontreats everyone or are you different Consistency Has the person always.
treated you this way or is this different Consensus Do other people do thissame thing or is this really different Attribution Why did he do Bob walks past you without saying.
Distinctiveness Your explanation as towhy Bob did this will be different if hedoes this to everyone in the hall or just Consistency Your explanation as to whyBob did this will be different if he always.
says hi to you or if you don t really knoweach other Consensus Whether you re in New YorkCity vs a college of 600 will change how BIASES IN ATTRIBUTION.
Fundamental attribution error whenexplaining the behavior of others this is thetendency to overemphasize personal causesunderemphasize situational causes Actor Observer Bias This is the opposite.
used by us when we explain our ownbehavior We overemphasize situationalcauses and downplay personality BIASES INATTRIBUTION.
Defensive attribution Self Serving Bias Tendency to attribute oursuccesses to our own efforts and our failures toexternal factors Just world hypothesis Assumption bad things.
happen to bad people and good things happento good people Attribution across cultures variesdramatically Dispositional attribution .
behavior is linked to theindividual Situational attribution behavioris linked to a situation EFFECTS OF.
ATTRIBUTIONHow we explain someone s behavioraffects how we react to it DISPOSITIONAL internal orSITUATIONAL external .
They won only because the best athletes on theCentral State s teams were out with injuries talk about good fortune External situational They won because they have some of the best.
talent in the country Internal dispositional Anybody could win this region the competitionis so far below average in comparison to therest of the country .
External situational They won because they put in a great deal ofeffort and practice Internal dispositional Fundamental Attribution Error .
underestimating situationalinfluences when evaluating thebehavior of someone else He swerved into my lanebecause he is a jerk .
Actor observer bias attributingothers behaviors to dispositionbut your own behaviors even thesame behaviors to situational Example He swerved into my.
lane because he is a jerk but Iswerved into the next lanebecause I was trying to avoid ananimal in the road Self serving bias crediting your.
own successes to disposition butattributing your own failures tosituation Example I won the gamebecause I m talented .
I failed the test becausethe questions were unfair ATTRIBUTING BEHAVIOR TO PERSONS ORSITUATIONS THE EFFECTS OF ATTRIBUTION Personal relationships.
Political relationshipsrelationships14 Stereotyp Primacy CognitiveSelf FundamentaSOCIAL es Effect Dissonan.
Serving l AttributionError PSYCHOLOGPSYCHOLOG ceAttribut WeAttitude Foot in.
explain Social here Formationothers Cognitio andbehavio n changechange Routes tor Persuasi.
Persuasi PersuasioJust World on Individualistic vs Hypothesi Collectivistic Cultures Social Attractio.
Behavior ndeindividuation the self fulfilling In Group Impact Out Groupbystander effect of.
social facilitation OthersOthers Treatment ofgroup Othersthe members onPerson Group.
Conformit Group GroupCompliance Polarization Think ATTITUDES The Nature of Attitudes Relatively stable.
Beliefs facts and general Feelings love hate like dislike Behaviors inclination toapproach avoid buy ROUTES A MESSAGE CAN.
TAKE TO PERSUADE YOU Central Route to Persuasion when the attitude of the audience or individual is changed as a result of thoughtfulconsideration of the message .
Peripheral Route to Persuasion occurs when positive or negative cues such asimages sounds or language are associatedwith the object of the message An advertisement featuring a song that the.
audience member likes or a person whom theaudience member sees as appealing mightcause a person to have positive feelings towardthe brand without that person ever thinking ATTITUDES CAN AFFECT.
Our attitudes predict our behaviors imperfectlybecause other factors including the externalsituation also influence behavior Democratic leaders supported Bush s attackon Iraq under public pressure However they.
had their private reservations ATTITUDES AND ACTIONS ACTIONS AFFECT ATTITUDES The Foot in the DoorPhenomenon.
start small and build People come to believe in the idea theyhave supported Actions feed attitudes which feed Easier to change attitudes than actions.
COGNITIVE DISSONANCE Occurs whenever a person has twocontradictory cognitions or beliefs at thesame time They are dissonant each oneimplies the opposite of the other .
The less coerced and more responsible wefeel for an action the more dissonance The more dissonance the more likely weare to change our attitude It creates an unpleasant cognitive tension.
and the person tries to resolve in thefollowing ways RESOLUTION OF COGNITIVEDISSONANCE1 Sometimes changing your attitude is.
the easiest way to solve this Example I am a loyal friend but yesterday I gossiped aboutmy friend Chris Well I can t change my action but I don twant to change my view of myself so my attitude aboutChris must be wrong He really is more of an acquaintance.
than a friend 2 Increase the number of thoughts thatback one side It was awesome gossip3 Reduce the importance of one or both.
of the sides The person I gossiped with won t really tell that many COGNITIVE DISSONANCE Cognitive dissonance theory states thatwe are motivated to reduce this.
uncomfortable feeling by changing ourbeliefs to match our actions The dissonance uncomfortable feeling isless if we feel that we were forced toperform the action Thus the larger the.
pressure used to elicit the overt behavior the smaller the tendency to change EXAMPLES OF COGNITIVEDISSONANCE Foot in the door.
phenomenon thetendency for peoplewho agree to a smallrequest to comply laterwith a larger one.
examples pleasedrive carefully KoreanWar People s Temple training torturers ATTITUDES AND ACTIONS .
ACTIONS AFFECT ATTITUDES Role Playing Affects Attitudes Stanford Abu Ghraib Role playing .
subjects who playa role often beginto become therole Zimbardo sprison study .
Powerof roleconformity SOCIAL INFLUENCE14 Stereotyp Primacy CognitiveSelf Fundamenta.
SOCIAL es Effect DissonanServing l AttributionError PSYCHOLOGPSYCHOLOG ceAttitude Foot in.
explain Social Formationothers Cognitio andbehavio n changechange Routes tor Persuasi.
Persuasi PersuasioJust World on Individualistic vs Hypothesi Collectivistic Cultures Social Attractio.
Behavior ndeindividuation the self fulfilling In Group Impact Out Groupbystander effect We of.
social facilitation OthersOthers Treatment ofare Othersthe members onPerson Group.
Conformit Group GroupCompliance Polarization Think CONFORMITY AND OBEDIENCE Chameleon effect empathy.
14 Stereotyp Primacy CognitiveSelf FundamentaSOCIAL es Effect DissonanServing l AttributionError PSYCHOLOG.
PSYCHOLOG ceAttitude Foot in explain Social Formationothers Cognitio andbehavio n change.
change Routes tor Persuasi Persuasi PersuasioJust World on Individualistic vs .
Hypothesi Collectivistic Cultures Social AttractioBehavior ndeindividuation the self fulfilling In Group .
Impact Out Groupbystander effect ofsocial facilitation OthersOthers Treatment ofgroup Others.
the members onPerson GroupConformit Group GroupCompliance Polarization Think CONFORMITY.
Conformity A change in one sbehavior due to the real orimagined influence ofother people Unlikeobedience conformity.
does not require commands orcoercion by an authority CONFORMITY AND OBEDIENCE GROUP PRESSURE AND CONFORMITY Solomon Asch study.
https www youtube com watch v ... Normative Social InfluenceConformity and Social Approval The Asch Line Judgment StudiesAsch tested whether people would.
conform in situations in which thegroup s judgments were obviouslyincorrect Participants in the Asch line studyshowed a high level of conformity .
given how obvious it was that thegroup was wrong in its judgments CONFORMITY ANDSOLOMON ASCH STUDY ASCH STUDIES OF.
CONFORMITY What was the role of Public versus private conformity Unanimity of the group Normative influence don t want to look.
PRIVATE vs PUBLICCONFORMITY Private conformity change of beliefsthat occurs when a person privatelyaccepts the position taken by others .
Public conformity superficial changein overt behavior without acorresponding change of opinion produced by real or imagined group Aschstudies demonstrate PUBLIC.
conformity NORMATIVE SOCIAL Normative influence Conformityoccurs when a person fears thenegative consequences of appearing.
If they write answers privately conformity drops markedly UNANIMOUS GROUP When the group s position isunanimous conformity is greater .
If one person dissents an ally conformity drops NORMATIVE SOCIALWhen Will People Conform toNormative Social Influence .
Asch s research show thatconformity does not increase muchafter group size reaches 4 or 5 other CONFORMITY AND OBEDIENCE GROUP PRESSURE AND CONFORMITY.
Conditions That Strengthen Conformity One is made to feel incompetent or insecure Group has at least three people Group is unanimous One admires the group s status.
One has made no prior commitment Others in group observe one s behavior One s culture strongly encourages respect forsocial standards CONFORMITY AND OBEDIENCE .
GROUP PRESSURE AND CONFORMITY Reasons for Conforming Normative social influence Informational social influence WHO IS MOST LIKELY TO.
Adolescents Women are slightly more likely thanmen but the difference is very smalland depends on the specific type ofsituation .
Cultures valuing interpersonalharmony e g some cultures in Asia Africa and South America People with low self esteem are morelikely to conform than those with.
high self esteem One side first announces its recognition of mutual interests & its intent to reduce tensions . Then it initiates one or more small, conciliatory acts ex: smile, a touch, word of apology (modest beginning to open a door for negotiations, communication & reciprocity by the other party) If the other party responds with hostility, one reciprocates ...

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