Unit 5: 1750-1900

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Unit 5 1750 1900Part II Revolutions ImperialismIt s alive Key Concept 5 3 Nationalism .
Revolution and Reform I Enlightenment thought oftenpreceded revolutions and reglions Took learning from the scientificrevolution reason rationality and.
applied it to society Philosophers like Voltaire outwardlychallenged religion and said reason wasmore important Rousseau argued for natural rights.
rights we are born with and the socialcontract citizens give up some rights for Montesquieu FR came up with agovernment system that separatepowers and had checks and balances.
Adopted in US Constitution Locke ENG thought that mostpeople were good and would do theright thing Felt they deserved as many rights as.
possible as long as they don t impede onothers rights Government should serve the ppl notvice versa Hobbes disagreed.
Said that ppl were born selfish andstubborn Most ppl are stupid and The government must protect the pplfrom themselves By only giving limited rights and reserving.
many of them Advocated an absolute monarchy Important revolutionary documentsshowed thinkers resisted political American Declaration of Independence.
know doc for test Declaring independency Number of problems w King George French Declaration of Rights of Man andCitizen know doc for test .
List of rights all men not women have Locke s all rights but those that harm idea Freedom of speech petition vote Bolivar s Jamaica Letter Asked to describe how Latin America.
broke free Said they were treated like sub humans Now free Latin America can prosper spoiler alert they don t Enlightenment ideas led to.
challenging of social structure Led to more suffrage Abolition of slavery End of serfdom II In the 1700s commonalities.
began based on commonlanguage religion customs andterritory Nationalism Governments used it to unitediverse populations .
III Ppl continued to growdiscontented with imperial rulewhich led to reform andrevolution Subject challenged strong imperial.
governments Marathas southern Indian Hindus roseup against Mughal Empire Took much of southern India and alliedwith Mughals to fight Afghans .
American colonial subjects led aseries of rebellions which facilitatedthe emergence of independent statesin the United States Haiti andmainland Latin America French.
subjects rebelled against their American Revolution Taxes on colonies after French and Indian No taxation w o representation The French Revolution.
3 Estates 1st Clergy 15 of land 2nd Nobility 35 of land Bourgeoisie Middle 3rd Commoners 50 of land.
80 of population 3rd Estate Main cause of FR rev Economic Louis XVI Marie Antoinette in Estates General meeting .
3rd wants national constitution All Locked out Tennis Court Oath Won t stop until cons Start of French Rev Storm the Bastille Prison .
Great Fear National Assembly writesDeclaration of the rights of manand the citizens rights for all Olympe de Gouges wants rights.
for women too Louis hides in Versailles Women come to him telling their children are He comes back to Paris .
basically hostage Constitution of 1791 King w legislators legs have all power Rich freak out King tries to escape caught by.
Paris Commune Rebels Demand an end to the monarchy Sans Culottes without fancy pants led byGeorges Danton .
Take power from NationalAssembly force a newconvention on future of Big massacre 1000s killed National Convention 1792 .
The Fate of the King At convention Louis issentenced to death Beheadedat guillotine kills quickly andhumanely p 339.
Marat pushed for Louis to bekilled Worked in bath to soothskin disorder Charlotte Cordaykilled him in the tub Reign of.
EUR countries to Terrorinvade and put king backin power Why Committee meets and give power toRobespierre .
Kills 40 000 enemies at home Antionette de Gouges Held in public where dissenters Examples Lyon 1880 grapeshot into opengraves Nantes 3 000 drowned on barge in The Republic of Virtue.
Tried to put new laws in Franceby sending reps into country Dechristinaized France Changed street names Notre Dame Temple of.
Reason Started calendar atfirst day of republic End of day 1 French Revolutionary Army Huge army Everyone.
Begins nationalism loyaltyto nation not a ruler Before small professionalarmies Now peoplefighting for purpose .
End of Robes After FR wins Robespierrestill killing Convention votes to havehim guillotined.
New gov Directory w fiveDirectors governors takes Very corrupt Ppl stillmad at Robes Some stillwant king back .
Coup detat quickoverthrow by militaryleader Napoleon Nappy Po Po Napoleon Dad was layer Went to.
military school Learned a lot from the FR rev Rises thru army Becomes head Overthrows Directory Calls new govConsulate He is the consul He has.
absolute power Later he s consul for life then Emp Napoleon I Made peace with church Not religious though Brought laws together Civil or Napoleonic Code .
Equal rights religion choose jobs Took rights back from women given by rev Divorce inherit land Made gov offices based on expertise middle classcould join .
Opened mail controlled newspapers Wars Defeats coalition of Eur countries Has empire big France with Rome dependent states ruled by relatives .
and allies defeated and joined allagainst England Britain survives due to strong navy Nap tried to stop goods fromgetting to BR Middle east and.
Latin America made up for it Nationalism grows Othercountries hated French asoppressors Also FR showedthem how nationalism could.
overthrow a gov Nap brings 600 000 to Rus Rus retreats burns own citiesso FR can t get food Get toMoscow its burning They.
retreat back across rus Winterwas cruel When FR gets backto Poland only 40 000 left FR weak ENG comes and takes Paris Louis XVIII XVI s brother takes throne .
Nap sent to island of Elba Gets bored Comes back to FR Gets army goes to Belgium ENG and Prussian armies defeat him aWaterloo under Duke of Wellington .
Exiled to St Helena off AFR Positives and Negatives of Napoleon i Bad 1 wars lasted for years cost a ton killed a 2 Denied women basic rights.
3 Censored speech and the press ii Good 1 Bank of France 2 Napoleonic Code Civil Law Code French law.
3 Established universities Comparing American and FrenchRevolutions 1 US colonial uprising against imperialpower independence movement.
2 French Revolution more of a revolution a Actually want to change political economic b Not merely a transfer of power from oneelite group to another c Social political structure radically changes.
i For US Britain structure remains essentially the 3 But US a revolution set precedent forcolonies breaking away from empires a First to break away since Age of Exploration Haitian Revolution.
Causes 90 slave huge plantations Huge coffee sugar exports Enlightenment reading by creoles and Inspired by French Revolution.
Success of America s Revolution Europe in chaos w Napoleon Francedistracted Stages Slave insurrection of 1791.
Toussaint L Ouverture former slave Britain and Spain send troops slaves and Frenchjoin to oust them At the end of civil war slaves freed and in power still a French colony.
1802 troops under Napoleon sent to end rule offormer slaves Defeat of the French by rebels and disease a Haitians capable fighters b Yellow fever wipes out soldiers.
c L Ouverture captured and imprisoned in France d Napoleon gives up attempt to reconquer Haiti Outcome Independence declared in 1804 a Jacques Dessalines also slave .
governor general for life b Haiti first independent nation in Latin Long term effects Napoleon chose to abandon effort tomaintain French colonies in North.
Sold vast Louisiana Territory to US for Latin American Independence Causes Growing sense of national identity same as US.
Local resentment ofSpanish Portuguese economic policies same as US Frustration of American born Creoleupper and middle class.
Spark catalyst was Napoleon More causes was no tradition of constitutions civil liberties political right consider connection to Iraq.
Prevalence of dictatorial military rule Caudillos military political strongmen personal charisma military force and or oppression Economically backward Years of extraction of resources and monoculture.
Slow to industrialize Racial inequalities Mestizo mulattoes slaves etc Outsiders have huge influence First Europe then US.
Install leaders they like Mexican Revolution 1 1810 Father Hidalgo cried for independence El Grito de Delores MexicanIndependence Day .
Led mestizo rebellion killed martyred Jose Morelos took over after death Liberals finally overthrew Spanish andinstated a republic Outcome.
Years of turmoil corruption French invade and try to occupy Benito Juarez starts social reforms Mexican Revolution 2 1910 Dictator Diaz takes over.
Things really bad for poor pay mosttaxes no land ownership Civil War Uprising of peasants leads toa Constitution Still used today.
Government took ownership of naturalresources and Church property Minimum wage Made Catholicism only religion Universal male suffrage.
Venezuelan Revolution Simon Bolivar Enlightened in Europe US Declares war ousts both Spanish andFrench Joseph Bonaparte .
Makes new country Gran Columbia Columbia Ecuador Venezuela Leads to rest of South America becomingfree by friend Jose San Martin Argentina Chile Peru .
Brazilian Revolution Napoleon took Portugal King John VIflees to Brazil Goes back to Portugal leaves son Pedro Pedro declares independence from.
Portugal names himself emperor Makes Brazil stable under a monarch unlike other Latin countries Abolishes slavery leads to republic later Slave resistance challenged.
existing authorities in the Maroon societies Means fugitive Escaped slave societies in Latin andNorth America.
Some became stable w trade Others were very small and tribal Increasing questions about political authorityand growing nationalism contributed toanticolonial movements .
Boxer Rebellion Boxers Society of Righteous andHarmonious Fists anti European anti Christian Boxers martial arts experts.
Goal drive Europeans and Japanese out of Tactics guerilla warfare against Christianmissionaries embassies defeated once Europeans Japanese sent inreinforcements.
China forced to sign Boxer Protocol payments Sepoy Mutiny AKA Indian Revolt of 1857 British East India Company used Indians Sepoys as soldiers Sepoys start to get frustrated 1857.
Taking up too much of India Not respecting Muslim Hindu customs Bullet cartridges greased with pork beef fat bothforbidden Rumor Massacres and atrocities on both sides.
Tens of thousands killed British soldiers civilians Indian troops civilians Hindus Muslims failed to cooperate with each other Reaction British make India a crown colony.
300 million Indians become British subjects Some of the rebellions wereinfluenced by religious ideas andmillenarianism Taiping Rebellion Chinese.
nationalist rebellion Led by Hong Xiuquan Christian Jesus brother Wanted to bring in Christian Heavenly Kingdom to China.
Eventually defeated by CHN US GB Millenarianism religious beliefthat the turn to a 1 000 yearmultiple will bring about a new.
Sepoys start to get frustrated – 1857. Taking up too much of India. Not respecting Muslim/Hindu customs. Bullet cartridges greased with pork/beef fat – both forbidden (Rumor) Massacres and atrocities on both sides. Tens of thousands killed – British soldiers, civilians, Indian troops, civilians. Hindus/Muslims failed to cooperate with ...

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