Unit 5: 1750-1900

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Unit 5 1750 1900, Part II Revolutions , Imperialism. It s alive , Key Concept 5 3 Nationalism , Revolution and Reform. I Enlightenment thought often, preceded revolutions and reglions . Took learning from the scientific, revolution reason rationality and. applied it to society, Philosophers like Voltaire outwardly.
challenged religion and said reason was, more important . Rousseau argued for natural rights, rights we are born with and the social. contract citizens give up some rights for, Montesquieu FR came up with a. government system that separate, powers and had checks and balances. Adopted in US Constitution, Locke ENG thought that most.
people were good and would do the, right thing, Felt they deserved as many rights as. possible as long as they don t impede on, others rights. Government should serve the ppl not, vice versa, Hobbes disagreed. Said that ppl were born selfish and, stubborn Most ppl are stupid and. The government must protect the ppl, from themselves.
By only giving limited rights and reserving, many of them. Advocated an absolute monarchy, Important revolutionary documents. showed thinkers resisted political, American Declaration of Independence. know doc for test , Declaring independency, Number of problems w King George. French Declaration of Rights of Man and, Citizen know doc for test .
List of rights all men not women have, Locke s all rights but those that harm idea. Freedom of speech petition vote, Bolivar s Jamaica Letter . Asked to describe how Latin America, broke free, Said they were treated like sub humans. Now free Latin America can prosper, spoiler alert they don t . Enlightenment ideas led to, challenging of social structure.
Led to more suffrage, Abolition of slavery, End of serfdom. II In the 1700s commonalities, began based on common. language religion customs and, territory Nationalism . Governments used it to unite, diverse populations . III Ppl continued to grow, discontented with imperial rule.
which led to reform and, revolution , Subject challenged strong imperial. governments , Marathas southern Indian Hindus rose. up against Mughal Empire , Took much of southern India and allied. with Mughals to fight Afghans , American colonial subjects led a. series of rebellions which facilitated, the emergence of independent states.
in the United States Haiti and, mainland Latin America French. subjects rebelled against their, American Revolution. Taxes on colonies after French and Indian, No taxation w o representation. The French Revolution, 3 Estates, 1st Clergy 15 of land. 2nd Nobility 35 of land, Bourgeoisie Middle, 3rd Commoners 50 of land.
80 of population, 3rd Estate, Main cause of FR rev Economic. Louis XVI Marie Antoinette in, Estates General meeting . 3rd wants national constitution All, Locked out Tennis Court Oath. Won t stop until cons , Start of French Rev, Storm the Bastille Prison . Great Fear, National Assembly writes, Declaration of the rights of man.
and the citizens rights for all , Olympe de Gouges wants rights. for women too, Louis hides in Versailles, Women come to him . telling their children are, He comes back to Paris . basically hostage, Constitution of 1791 King w , legislators legs have all power . Rich freak out , King tries to escape caught by, Paris Commune Rebels .
Demand an end to the monarchy , Sans Culottes, without fancy pants led by. Georges Danton , Take power from National, Assembly force a new. convention on future of, Big massacre 1000s killed . National Convention 1792 , The Fate of the King, At convention Louis is. sentenced to death Beheaded, at guillotine kills quickly and.
humanely p 339, Marat pushed for Louis to be, killed Worked in bath to sooth. skin disorder Charlotte Corday, killed him in the tub . Reign of, EUR countries to Terror, invade and put king back. in power Why , Committee meets and give power to, Robespierre . Kills 40 000 enemies at home Antionette . de Gouges Held in public where dissenters, Examples Lyon 1880 grapeshot into open.
graves Nantes 3 000 drowned on barge in, The Republic of Virtue. Tried to put new laws in France, by sending reps into country . Dechristinaized France , Changed street names , Notre Dame Temple of. Reason Started calendar at, first day of republic . End of day 1, French Revolutionary Army, Huge army Everyone.
Begins nationalism loyalty, to nation not a ruler. Before small professional, armies Now people, fighting for purpose . End of Robes, After FR wins Robespierre, still killing . Convention votes to have, him guillotined, New gov Directory w five. Directors governors takes, Very corrupt Ppl still.
mad at Robes Some still, want king back , Coup detat quick. overthrow by military, leader Napoleon, Nappy Po Po. Napoleon Dad was layer Went to, military school , Learned a lot from the FR rev . Rises thru army Becomes head , Overthrows Directory Calls new gov. Consulate He is the consul He has, absolute power .
Later he s consul for life , then Emp Napoleon I . Made peace with church Not religious though , Brought laws together Civil or Napoleonic Code . Equal rights religion choose jobs , Took rights back from women given by rev . Divorce inherit land , Made gov offices based on expertise middle class. could join , Opened mail controlled newspapers , Wars .
Defeats coalition of Eur countries , Has empire big France with Rome . dependent states ruled by relatives , and allies defeated and joined all. against England, Britain survives due to strong navy . Nap tried to stop goods from, getting to BR Middle east and. Latin America made up for it , Nationalism grows Other.
countries hated French as, oppressors Also FR showed. them how nationalism could, overthrow a gov , Nap brings 600 000 to Rus . Rus retreats burns own cities, so FR can t get food Get to. Moscow its burning They, retreat back across rus Winter. was cruel When FR gets back, to Poland only 40 000 left .
FR weak ENG comes and takes Paris , Louis XVIII XVI s brother takes throne . Nap sent to island of Elba Gets bored , Comes back to FR . Gets army goes to Belgium , ENG and Prussian armies defeat him a. Waterloo under Duke of Wellington , Exiled to St Helena off AFR. Positives and Negatives of Napoleon, i Bad, 1 wars lasted for years cost a ton killed a.
2 Denied women basic rights, 3 Censored speech and the press. ii Good, 1 Bank of France, 2 Napoleonic Code Civil Law Code . French law, 3 Established universities, Comparing American and French. Revolutions, 1 US colonial uprising against imperial. power independence movement, 2 French Revolution more of a revolution.
a Actually want to change political economic, b Not merely a transfer of power from one. elite group to another, c Social political structure radically changes. i For US Britain structure remains essentially the. 3 But US a revolution set precedent for, colonies breaking away from empires. a First to break away since Age of Exploration. Haitian Revolution, Causes, 90 slave huge plantations. Huge coffee sugar exports, Enlightenment reading by creoles and.
Inspired by French Revolution, Success of America s Revolution. Europe in chaos w Napoleon France, distracted , Stages. Slave insurrection of 1791, Toussaint L Ouverture former slave. Britain and Spain send troops slaves and French. join to oust them, At the end of civil war slaves freed and in power . still a French colony, 1802 troops under Napoleon sent to end rule of.
former slaves, Defeat of the French by rebels and disease. a Haitians capable fighters, b Yellow fever wipes out soldiers. c L Ouverture captured and imprisoned in France. d Napoleon gives up attempt to reconquer Haiti. Outcome, Independence declared in 1804, a Jacques Dessalines also slave . governor general for life, b Haiti first independent nation in Latin. Long term effects, Napoleon chose to abandon effort to.
maintain French colonies in North, Sold vast Louisiana Territory to US for. Latin American Independence, Causes, Growing sense of national identity . same as US, Local resentment of, Spanish Portuguese economic policies . same as US, Frustration of American born Creole, upper and middle class. Spark catalyst was Napoleon, More causes, was no tradition of constitutions civil liberties .
political right, consider connection to Iraq, Prevalence of dictatorial military rule. Caudillos military political strongmen, personal charisma military force and or oppression. Economically backward, Years of extraction of resources and monoculture. Slow to industrialize, Racial inequalities, Mestizo mulattoes slaves etc . Outsiders have huge influence, First Europe then US.
Install leaders they like, Mexican Revolution 1 1810. Father Hidalgo cried for independence, El Grito de Delores Mexican. Independence Day , Led mestizo rebellion killed martyred. Jose Morelos took over after death, Liberals finally overthrew Spanish and. instated a republic, Outcome, Years of turmoil corruption.
French invade and try to occupy, Benito Juarez starts social reforms. Mexican Revolution 2 1910, Dictator Diaz takes over. Things really bad for poor pay most, taxes no land ownership . Civil War Uprising of peasants leads to, a Constitution . Still used today, Government took ownership of natural.
resources and Church property, Minimum wage, Made Catholicism only religion. Universal male suffrage, Venezuelan Revolution, Simon Bolivar. Enlightened in Europe US, Declares war ousts both Spanish and. French Joseph Bonaparte , Makes new country Gran Columbia. Columbia Ecuador Venezuela , Leads to rest of South America becoming.
free by friend Jose San Martin Argentina , Chile Peru . Brazilian Revolution, Napoleon took Portugal King John VI. flees to Brazil, Goes back to Portugal leaves son Pedro. Pedro declares independence from, Portugal names himself emperor. Makes Brazil stable under a monarch, unlike other Latin countries .
Abolishes slavery leads to republic later, Slave resistance challenged. existing authorities in the, Maroon societies, Means fugitive . Escaped slave societies in Latin and, North America. Some became stable w trade, Others were very small and tribal. Increasing questions about political authority. and growing nationalism contributed to, anticolonial movements .
Boxer Rebellion, Boxers Society of Righteous and. Harmonious Fists, anti European anti Christian, Boxers martial arts experts. Goal drive Europeans and Japanese out of, Tactics guerilla warfare against Christian. missionaries embassies, defeated once Europeans Japanese sent in. reinforcements, China forced to sign Boxer Protocol payments.
Sepoy Mutiny AKA Indian Revolt of 1857 , British East India Company used Indians Sepoys. as soldiers, Sepoys start to get frustrated 1857. Taking up too much of India, Not respecting Muslim Hindu customs. Bullet cartridges greased with pork beef fat both. forbidden Rumor , Massacres and atrocities on both sides. Tens of thousands killed British soldiers civilians . Indian troops civilians, Hindus Muslims failed to cooperate with each other.
Reaction, British make India a crown colony, 300 million Indians become British subjects. Some of the rebellions were, influenced by religious ideas and. millenarianism , Taiping Rebellion Chinese, nationalist rebellion . Led by Hong Xiuquan Christian , Jesus brother , Wanted to bring in Christian. Heavenly Kingdom to China, Eventually defeated by CHN US GB.
Millenarianism religious belief, that the turn to a 1 000 year. Sepoys start to get frustrated – 1857. Taking up too much of India. Not respecting Muslim/Hindu customs. Bullet cartridges greased with pork/beef fat – both forbidden (Rumor) Massacres and atrocities on both sides. Tens of thousands killed – British soldiers, civilians, Indian troops, civilians. Hindus/Muslims failed to cooperate with ...

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