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B1 2 1 The nervous system The nervous system uses electrical impulses to send messages along neurons . These are VERY fast and allow you to respond quickly to changes in the. Types of Neurone environment , Sensory neurones send impulses from receptors Neurone a cell that transmits electrical impulses in the nervous system Central. in the sense organs to the CNS Nervous system CNS Brain and Spinal cord Peripheral Nervous system PNS . nerves connecting the sense organs and effectors to the CNS. Motor neurones send impulses from the CNS to, Sense organs detect changes both in and outside your body They contain receptor. muscles and glands , cells Eye Ear Skin Mouth Nose. Relay neurones found in the spinal cord brain , Stimulus Anything your body is sensitive to e g noise heat light Impulses . The link sensory and motor neurones Electrical signals in the nervous system that travel through neurones . The Reflex Arc an automatic response, Light receptor cells like most animal cells have a A Receptor reacts to a stimulus .
nucleus cytoplasm and cell membrane B Sensory Neuron carries message to the co ordinator CNS . C Relay Neuron Gaps between neurons are called SYNAPSES. D Motor Neuron carries message away from co ordinator CNS. E Effector a muscle or gland , B1 2 2 Control in the human body Hormones and Homeostasis. Hormones The endocrine system produces hormones in parts of the. body called glands These are chemicals that help control body. functions , The glands release the hormones into the blood where they are carried. to target organs , Hormones travel a lot slower than nerve messages but their effects are. usually longer lasting and they act quickly , Hormones control things like menstruation in women as well as the. changes that occur to our bodies during puberty and homeostasis . Factors controlled by homeostasis , Water content water leaves the body by lungs when we breathe out skin when we sweat SAS survival manual says to.
kidneys in the urine conserve water , Avoid exercise stay in the. Ion content ions are lost by skin when we sweat kidneys in the urine. shade don t lie on hot ground , Temperature to maintain the temperature at which enzymes work best for chemical no sweating . reactions in the cells Normal body temperature is 37oC Don t eat digestion uses up. Blood glucose levels controlled by the pancreas to provide the cells with a constant supply water . of energy Don t talk and breathe through, your mouth so no water lost. from mouth , Coordination and control, 1 How are messages sent around the body . 2 Name the 3 neurones , 3 Which is attached to the receptor effector .
4 What is a synapse CNS , 5 How is the message different across a synapse . 6 List the steps in a reflex arc, 7 What is a reflex . 8 List 2 conscious and 2 unconscious control , 9 What do plants respond to What are these response called . 10 Which parts of the plants respond , 11 Name the hormone found in plants. 12 How are plant hormones used , 6 Mark question, Describe in detail what will.
happen if Cartman s blow, torch touches his fingers. think nervous system , Peer assess, The pain receptors in the finger sense the pain and stimulate the sensory. Once the sensory neurone has been stimulated an electrical impulse. travels along its length to the spinal cord , The sensory neurone is connected to a relay neurone via a synapse . The relay neurone is triggered by a chemical messenger which in turn. triggers the motor neurone , This stimulates the effector organ biceps muscle . The relay neurone also sends a message to the brain so it knows what is. B1 2 2 Control in the human body Menstrual, Hormone Produced in Causes .
FSH Pituitary Gland Egg to mature stimulates ovary to produce oestrogen. Follicle stimulating Hormone, Oestrogen Ovaries Lining of the womb to develop Stimulates pituitary gland to make LH. LH Pituitary Gland Triggers release of egg from the ovary. Luteinising hormone, Progesterone Ovaries Maintains the lining of the womb. Controlling fertility , Menstrual cycle 28 days Contraception Inhibits production of FSH so. Reproductive cycle in women eggs don t mature in the ovaries . Brought about by hormones Fertility treatments FSH used to stimulate eggs. to mature and trigger oestrogen production IVF, eggs collected and fertilised in the lab then. Womb lining thickens implanted, Eggs released from Advantages fewer children cost women.
ovary after 14 days freedom , ovulation Disadvantages expensive multiple births . If not fertilised the embryo use, womb lining and egg. come out as a period, Coordination and control, 1 What are hormones . 2 Name the 2 organs and the 4 hormones they produce. 3 Briefly describe their role , 4 What is ovulation What day does this happen . 5 What is contraception List some methods, 6 List some infertility treatments.
7 What is homeostasis , 8 How are water and ions maintained . 9 How is temperature maintained , 10 How is blood sugar maintained . 6 Mark question, Compare nervous, impulses and, responses using. examples of each, response in your, Peer assess, Example Nervous Impulses include . A response to a stimulus e g hand on a hot pan handle . A reflex response e g blinking when something approaches your eye. Example Hormone Responses include , Insulin to regulate blood sugar levels.
Adrelinto stimulate the flight or fight response. Oestrogen Progesterone LH FSH to control the menstrual cycle. Thyroxin to control the rate of growth, B1 7 1 Why organisms are different Genetic information is in the nucleus of cells. Inside the nucleus are chromosomes made up of DNA . humans have 46 chromosomes 23 pairs fruit flies have 8. chromosomes 4 pairs , Genes are a section of DNA and control enzymes and. proteins made in our body, Genes are passed on to you in the. sex cells gametes from your, parents they come in pairs. Genetic Variations Passed on from parents in your genes. E g Eye colour gender shape of nose, Environmental Variations Due to the way of life E g .
Scars accents hair length, Combined causes of variations E g Height weight. Investigating variety scientists study twins adopted by different families compared to identical twins brought up together. and non identical twins , Variation reproduction and. technology, 1 Where is genetic information , 2 What are chromosomes made of . 3 What is the structure of DNA , 4 What is the basic unit for inheritance . 5 What do genes code for Why do genes come in pairs . 6 How many chromosomes in body cells Gametes , 7 What is the difference between asexual and sexual reproduction .
8 Why is variation important , 9 List 2 ways variation happens and give examples of both . 10 List 2 factors that are a combination of both of the above. B1 7 2 Reproduction Reproduction can be sexual or asexual Sexual reproduction produces variation Asexual. reproduction produces clones , In sexual reproduction two parents are involved A mixture of genes is created . This variety is good as it helps us cope with changes and diseases as a species . Occurs in animals and some plants e g flowering plants . Advantages allows evolution variation increases chances of species survival. Disadvantages need to find a partner waste energy Waste in producing gametes slower. Asexual reproduction involves only one parent So there is no genetic variety CLONES . Occurs in bacteria and some plants e g strawberries . Variation reproduction and, technology, 1 What is genetic engineering . 2 List the stages in genetic engineering, 3 Why are bacteria used to produce insulin for humans . 4 What are the main advantages and disadvantages of genetic. engineering , 5 What is embryo screening , 6 How is asexual reproduction different to sexual reproduction .
6 Mark question, Explain how Spiderman was genetically. engineered and name the process that will make, copies of Spiderman. No GaGa I, wasn t born, this way I, was bitten, genetically. engineered, Peer assess, Desired gene selected and identified. Gene removed from spider, Using enzymes restriction enzyme.
Human DNA is cut open, Gene from spider is inserted into human DNA. Using ligase enzymes, New gene works in the human. Evolution, 1 What is meant by evolution Natural selection . 2 What was Darwin s theory , 3 Where did he travel to on what names which 3 organism did he find. similarities in , 4 Was why was Darwins theory not accepted at first What book did he.
publish Why did it take so long to publish , 5 What else is natural selection known as . 6 What are mutations How does this affect an organism . 7 What is speciation , 8 Wh came up with the theory of speciation . 6 Mark question, Road runners used to, have shorter legs why. do you think the, current generations, have longer legs . Explain as fully as you, Peer assess, Organisms differ due to variation.
Variation is inherited, Caused by mutations, Competition between species. Better adapted survive, Breed and reproduce, Genes passed on to offspring. All species of living things alive today have evolved from the first. B1 8 1 Evolution Theories, simple life forms , Jean Baptiste Lamarck French Charles Darwin travelled the. biologist Galapago Islands and noticed, His idea was that every animal animals were adapted to their. evolved from primitive worms surroundings his theory is that all. The change was caused by the living organisms have evolved from. inheritance of acquired simpler life forms This process has. characteristics come about by natural selection . accepted theory , Problems with Lamarck , No evidence People didn t.
like to think they descended Why did people object . from worms People could Religious god made the world. see clearly that changes were Not enough evidence, not passed onto their children No way to explain inheritance genetics. not known about, e g Big muscles , It took 50 years after Darwin s theory. was published to discover how, inheritance and variation worked. B1 8 1 Evolution Classification Biologists, classify living organisms. according to how closely, Similarities and differences they are related to one.
Different organisms can be classified by studying their another . similarities and differences These studies also help us. to understand the evolutionary relationships between. Species A group of similar organisms that, different organisms . can breed to produce fertile offspring, Evolutionary tree. Darwin s theory of Evolution by Natural Selection. DNA evidence used to, Variation populations of organisms have variations . decide which species an, Over production produce more young than will survive to adulthood . animal belongs to and, Struggle for existence competition for survival between the organisms.
work out evolutionary, Survival those with advantageous characteristics are more likely to survive Advantageous. relationships, characteristics inherited better adapted organisms are more likely to Reproduce successfully. passing on the advantageous characteristics to their offspring in their genes . Gradual change over a period of time the more individuals with the advantageous. characteristics in the population , New evidence from DNA research and the emergence of resistant organisms supports. Darwin s theory, Evolution, 1 What is classification . 2 Who came up with the old classification system The new one . 3 How are organisms classified , 4 What are the 3 domains .
5 Which is the biggest and smallest group of classification . 6 Name the 5 biggest groups , 7 What do we call evolutionary links between organisms . 8 How are they useful , 9 What s the difference between an evolutionary and ecological relationship . 10 What is the binomial system , What are the female chromosomes Males . Draw a genetic cross for having a boy or a girl. What are dominant characteristics Recessive Give examples. Define genotype phenotype heterozygous homozygous. What is a genetic disorder , Describe the symptoms and inheritance of polydactyl and cystic fibrosis . Draw punnet squares to show how they can be inherited . What are carriers Why must both of your parents be carriers to inherit. cystic fibrosis Where as polydactyl you only need one parent to inherit it. 6 Mark question, Peer assess, Old and new species.
What are fossils , What can we learn from fossils . How can fossils be formed , Why is the fossil record incomplete . Which animal has a complete fossil record , Why is it difficult for scientists to know exactly how long ago life on earth began . What is extinction List ways that organisms cause extinction. What environmental changes cause extinction , Give 2 possible causes of mass extinction. menstruation in women . as well as the changes that occur to our bodies during . puberty. and . homeostasis. SAS survival manual says to conserve water: - Avoid exercise, stay in the shade, don’t lie on hot ground – no sweating. - Don’t eat – digestion uses up water. - Don’t talk and breathe through your mouth – so no water lost ...

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