Vertebrate Zoology - Islamic University of Gaza

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Practical VertebratePrepared by Nada H Lubbad 2016 The course description andobjectives .
The main objective is to provide an in depth study of vertebratebiology with an emphasis on both aquatic vertebrate and terrestrialvertebrates Labs will focus on the morphology and anatomy of vertebrate in apractical way .
The labs schedule Labs No Topic covered1 Characteristics and Classification of Phylum Chordate2 Morphological and Sectional studies of Amphioxus and Lamprey3 Skeletal system in the rabbit 1 Axial skeleton.
4 Skeletal system in the rabbit 2 Appendicular skeletal5 Skeletal system in the Pigeon6 Morphological Characteristic and Modifications in fishes7 Mummification project8 Dissection of the Dog fish Chondrichthyes .
9 Dissection of the Bolti Osteichthyes 10 Dissection of the Frog Amphibia 11 Dissection of the Domestic Pigeon Aves 12 Dissection of the Rabbit Mammalia The Course Evaluation .
Attendance 10 Activities 10 Quizzes 20 Mummification project 20 Final exam practical 40 .
The course textbook Practical vertebrate zoology a laboratory manual PowerPoint Slides Introduction to ZoologyEssential Concepts.
Branches of Biology Zoology definition The branch of biology that deals with animals an animal life including thestudy of the structure physiology development and classification of animals Binomial nomenclature .
In order to create one system that could be used universally Carolus Linnaeusdeveloped binomial nomenclature This is a system that uses two names to identify an organism Specifically it usesthe genus and species name Genus Species.
Homo sapiensHomo sapiens OR Homo sapiens Species groups of interbreeding natural populations Genus genera all similar species grouped together based on characters thatdefine the genus .
Taxonomy The study of naming and classifying organisms Two primary reasons for taxonomy For simple convenience organizational purposes It tries to show phylogeny or evolutionary history .
Taxonomic methods depend on Morphology Genetics Behaviors Hierarchical Classification .
Kingdom Phylum Linnaeus developed a system that went from broadest to mostspecific The levels of classification he used are Class OrderFamily Genus.
Kings Play Chess On Fat Guys Stomachs The Five KingdomsAnimal Kingdom Protista KingdomMetazoa parazoa protozoaSarcomastigophor.
invertebrate Choradata Porifera Ciliophora aApicomplexaVertebra Protocho About 95 of species lack backbones and are collectively calledInvertebrate.
Essential Concepts 1 Body SymmetryThere are four types of body plan symmetry Asymmetry there are no planes of regular symmetry e g In protozoans such as rhizopods.
Spherical symmetry the body is divisible into symmetricalhalves in all directions planes e g Radiolarians Protista Radial symmetry body arranged in circle around a central axisFound in sessile or floating animals .
Lines of symmetry exist but in vertical plane onlye g Cnidaria Echinodermata Bilateral symmetry body divides equally along one plane which splits ananimal into mirror image sides Animal have dorsal and ventral surfaces .
anterior and posterior ends Found in freely mobile animalse g the majority of invertebrates vertebrates 2 Body Development.
Cephalization It associated with bilateral symmetry It means the concentration of sense organs feeding apparatus onon the anterior end Vertebrates possess a highly specialized brain to process sensory.
inputs than invertebrate Examples of animals with cephalization Insect crabs birds fish mammals hydra flatwormsMouth photoreceptors and.
nerve cells arelocated at oneend head Flatworms Sense organs and a brain.
located at one end Metamerism The arrangement of the organs of the body in series of similar unitsalong the longitudinal axis of the body It is most clearly in annelids the body divided both externally and.
internally into number of segments metameres In vertebrate segmentation appears in muscles nerves andvertebrae Gonads in vertebrates are reduced to one pair only while ininvertebrates there are several pairs of gonads .
Animal Characterization Based on Features of EmbryologicalDevelopment Fertilization The sperm and egg nuclei fuse and the oocyte n becomes a zygote 2n The zygoteis a single typically diploid cell Once the zygote divides into two cells it is called an.
embryo in cleavage Cleavage The zygote undergoes cleavage converting its large yolk filled cytoplasmic mass into small cells No cell growth occurs only subdivision into increasingly smaller cells until cells reach regular somaticcell size .
Patterns of Cleavage The pattern of cleavage where and how the zygote divides is coded in the DNAand is affected by the quantity and distribution of yolk as the yolk appears to get in the way of thecleavage process Egg Classifications Isolecithal eggs small amount of yolk mammals.
Mesolecithal eggs moderate amount of yolk typical of amphibian eggs frog Telolecithal eggs large amount of yolk typical of birds and reptiles Centrolecithal eggs Nuclei copied without cytokinesis cytoplasm division Yolk in center of egg Nuclei move to surface before forming cell membranes most Types of cleavage .
Gastrulation It means the movement of cells The process of gastrulation and the parts of a gastrula Gastrulation in details During early animal development most embryos develop into a blastula or hollow ball.
Then they form a gastrula by a process called gastrulation During gastrulation some of the outer embryonic cells get pushed inward in a processcalled invagination This creates many structures including layers called germ layers The inner hollow part of a blastula called a blastocoel .
Invagination during gastrulation produces a pocket or space called the archenteron The opening of the archenteron is called the blastopore Depending on the type of animal a blastopore will become either the mouth or the Germ layers Gastrulation the process that produces different germ layers .
Germ layers are the initial tissue layers of an embryo and animals can have up to1 Ectoderm is the outermost layer of cells 2 Mesoderm is the middle tissue layer 3 Endoderm is the innermost germ layer Examples of tissue types that come from the three germ layers.
Germ Layer Tissue typesOuter layer of skin nerves brain corneaEctoderm and lens of the eyeConnective tissue of skin dermis bone Mesoderm muscle including cardiac muscle .
cartilage blood cells and blood vessels fat cells reproductive tractInternal lining of organs of the digestiveEndoderm tract internal lining of respiratory tract Animals develop either two or three embryonic.
germs layers 1 Radially symmetrical animals are diploblasts developing two germ layers An inner layer endoderm and an outer layer ectoderm Diploblasts have a non living layer between the endoderm and ectoderm 2 Bilaterally symmetrical animals are called triploblasts developing three tissue layers .
An inner layer endoderm an outer layer ectoderm and a middle layer mesoderm During embryogenesis diploblasts develop two embryonic germ layers anectoderm and an endoderm Triploblasts develop a third layer themesoderm between the endoderm and ectoderm Presence or Absence of a Coelom.
Triploblasts can be differentiated into three categories 1 Those that do not develop an internal body cavity called a coelom Acoelomates 2 Those with a true coelom Eucoelomates 3 Those with false coeloms Pseudocoelomates .
Functions of coelom The coelomic cavity represents a fluid filled space that lies between the visceral organsand the body wall 1 It houses the digestive system kidneys reproductive organs and heart and it containsthe circulatory system .
2 The epithelial membrane also lines the organs within the coelom connecting andholding them in position while allowing them some free motion 3 The coelom also provides space for the diffusion of gases and nutrients as well as bodyflexibility and improved animal motility 4 The coelom also provides cushioning and shock absorption for the major organ.
systems while allowing organs to move freely for optimal development and placement Embryonic Development of the MouthBilaterally symmetrical triploblastic eucoelomatesProtostomes DeuterostomesAnnelids Mollusks.
ds Complex animal chordates Simple animals The word Protostome comes from the Greek word meaning mouth first EchinodermsThe word Deuterostomes comes from the Greek word meaning mouth second Development of the Coelom.
There are two processes o Schizocoely when a solid mass of the mesoderm splits apart and forms the hollowopening of the coelom E g Protostomes o Enterocoely when the mesoderm develops as pouches that are pinched off from the.
endoderm tissue These pouches eventually fuse to form the mesoderm which thengives rise to the coelom E g Deuterostomes Eucoelomates can be divided into two groups based on their early embryonic development In protostomes partof the mesoderm separates to form the coelom in a process called schizocoely In deuterostomes the mesoderm.
pinches off to form the coelom in a process called enterocoely General Characteristic of Chordates Chordates A diverse phylum of animals that possess a notochord adorsal hollow nerve cord and pharyngeal gill slits as embryos Vertebrates chordate animals with backbone vertebral column .
consisting of the mammals birds reptiles amphibians and variousclasses of fishes A generalized diagram of a chordate animal The presence of FOUR anatomical structures in theembryo stage distinguish Chordata phylum .
1 Notochord elastic solid skeletal rod lying below the nerve cordand above the alimentary canal Persist throughout lifeReplaced by backboneSome fishes lancelets.
2 Nerve cord a dorsal tubular which is located dorsal to the notochord It persists throughout life in most chordates but in a few it degeneratesbefore maturity 3 Pharyngeal gill slits paired openings leading from the pharynx to the exterior 4 Postanal tail a tail extending beyond the anus .
By contrast most non chordates have a digestive system extends nearly thewhole length of the body General Characteristic of Vertebrates 1 Cephalization highly specialized 2 Triploblastic .
3 Coelom the body cavity is divided into separate cavities Peritoneum Pericardium Pleura 4 Bilateral symmetry 5 Metamerism appears in muscles nerves and vertebrae 6 Gonads are reduced to one pair only .
7 Presence of vertebral column 8 The endoskeleton may be made od bone or cartilage or some combination ofthese two materials 9 The brain is encased in skull cranium 10 The heart is divided into two to four chambers and its ventral in position .
11 Cranial nerves are either ten pairs in anamniotes fishes and amphibians or twelvepairs in amniotes reptiles birds and mammals 12 The sex is separate Reproduction is sexual Fertilization may be external or internal 13 Waste products are removed from the blood by Kidneys Glossary .
Zoology The branch of biology that deals with animals an animal life including the study of the structure physiology development and classification of animals Taxonomy The study of naming and classifying organisms .
Asymmetry there are no planes of regular symmetry e g In protozoans such as rhizopods Spherical symmetry the body is divisible into symmetrical halves in all directions planes e g Radiolarians Protista Radial symmetry .
body arranged in circle around a central axis it found in sessile or floating animals Lines of symmetry exist butin vertical plane only e g Cnidaria Echinodermata Bilateral symmetry body divides equally along one plane which splits an animal into mirror image sides Animal have dorsal andventral surfaces anterior and posterior ends Found in freely mobile animals e g the majority of invertebrates.
vertebrates Cephalization It means the concentration of sense organs feeding apparatus on the anterior end Metamerism The arrangement of the organs of the body in series of similar units along the longitudinal axis of the body .
Isolecithal eggs small amount of yolk mammals Mesolecithal eggs moderate amount of yolk typical of amphibian eggs frog Telolecithal eggs large amount of yolk typical of birds and reptilesZoology: The branch of biology that deals with animals an animal life, including the study of the structure, physiology, development, and classification of animals . Taxonomy: The study of naming and classifying organisms. Asymmetry: there are no planes of regular symmetry.e.g. ,In protozoans such as rhizopods. Spherical . symmetry:

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