Who was to blame for the breakdown of the Grand Alliance?

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Who was to blame for thebreakdown of the GrandL O To discuss and evaluate the role played by variousfactors in the outbreak of the Cold War What caused the Cold.
Views on this issue depend a lot upon how youview the nature of Cold War itself 1 Was it a conflict about ideas and political2 Was it a conflict about rival economic systems 3 Was it a conflict about Great Power Rivalry .
Rank these 3 factors in order of importance Nowget into groups Using your notes timelines andtextbooks put together a case arguing for one ofthe above factors You will be judged on yourevidence arguments .
1 Role of Ideology What examples facts and details could we give to prove the Cold War was aresult of ideology struggle What events could we analyse to prove this Communism vs Capitalism 19th Bolshevik Revolution 1917 Red Scare in USA 1920s.
Western attempts to destroy Communism 1918 22 Salami tactics used in post war Europe Czech Coup COMINTERN COMINFORM and worldwide revolution Rise of Communist Parties post war Greece France Italy Marshall Plan and Dollar Imperialism .
US calls for free trade and democracy in Atlantic Charter and warconferences American Imperialism Iron Curtain Speech Stalin s Speeches and Ideology Western Liberal Democracy vs Soviet Totalitarianism Stalinism paranoid and hostile to outside world Gaddis .
2 Role of Economic What examples facts and details could we give to prove the ColdWar was a result of economic rivalry What events could we analyseto prove this US economic policy open markets free trade IMF GATT World.
Bank Bretton Woods Agreement free market capitalism Threat toSoviet Planned Economy Dollar Imperialism Marshall Plan aim to prevent Communism by solving poverty in COMECON Soviet attempt to create economic sphere ofinfluence Imposed Stalinist economic systems.
German Problem Stalin feared economically powerful Germany US wanted to export to Germany West introduced new currency inits zones led to Berlin Blockade Iran Crisis 1946 Stalin West wanted control of Iranian Oil 3 Role of Great Power.
What examples facts and details could we give to prove theCold War was a result of Great Power rivalry What eventscould we analyse to prove this Breakdown a result of traditional great power rivalry abalance of power always emerges in history especially in the.
power vacuum of post war Europe now Superpowers Alexis de Tocqueville 1835 US and Russia seemed destinedto control half the world Both expansionist power both needed to feed theircountries with raw materials new markets make the world.
safe for their countries Kissinger 1980s Soviet policy a continuation of Tsaristempire building US policy similar Was the war inevitable By viewing the Cold War as a result of either.
ideological economic or great power conflict werisk the danger of assuming that the Cold War wasalways inevitable But was it Some historians have argued that war wasn tinevitable but it was the actions of governments.
and individual leaders on both sides that increasedtension Which point do you agree with Why 1 Was the USSR to blame 2 Was the USA to blame 3 Or were both guilty of misreading each other .
Was it fear and suspicion of the other The USSR was to What examples facts and details could we give to prove theUSSR s actions caused the Cold War Roosevelt said at Yalta that he wanted US troops gone from.
Germany within 2 years US expected USSR to be part of new global system UN IMF Bretton Woods ACC in Germany Stalin disregarded promises at Yalta regarding Eastern Europe used Salami Tactics to control.
Remained in Northern Iran despite promises to withdraw Berlin Blockade was aggressive COMINFORM evidence of Stalin s expansionism Stalin promoted hostility to the West within the USSR The USA was to blame .
What examples facts and details could we give to prove the USA sactions caused the Cold War USSR had legitimate security concerns faced a hostile West since1917 lost 20 million in war weak economy needed a buffer zone inEastern Europe to prevent future attacks .
USSR s actions stemmed from USA s actions atomic bombthreatening USA determined to impose its own ideas on world Truman exaggerated Communist threat to Congress in order to defendits position in Europe US viewed all Soviet actions as ideological didn t understand USSR s.
need for security saw as aggression Introduction of new currency into Berlin was provocative US wantedan anti Soviet state Establishment of NATO was an aggressive action Were both sides to.
What examples facts and details could we give to prove that fear andsuspicion by both sides caused the Cold War The West and USA feared communism as a threat to its existence itspresence in the world would also be a threat USSR s actions were suspicious and expansionist went against spirit of.
Kennan s Long Telegram presented a very fearful view of the USSR needed to be stopped Developing Red Scare in USA increased paranoia China Korea USSRatomic bomb in 1949 confirmed fears USSR scared due to weak position after war USA had strong economy .
nuclear monopoly US imperialism Stalin was a paranoid leader totalitarian state meant his fear prevailed lack of dialogue within USSR unable to view US actions logically How have historiansinterpreted the Cold War .
At IBDP level you need to show an awareness of the views perspectives and interpretations of historians on the eventsyou are analysing We call this historiography Historiography the study of the way history has been andis written the history of historical writing .
L6 some awareness and evaluation of differentperspectives L7 there is evaluation of different perspectives and this isintegrated effectively into the answer How have historians.
interpreted the Cold War When revising for IBDP history and when writing essays youtherefore need to 1 Understand the demands and implications of the essay question practice unpacking questions looking for key command words.
2 Make notes on and remember specific accurate and relevantdetails about key events timelines detailed notes3 Critically analyse events break events down review whathappened and why criticise and argue develop your own thesis back up your views with specific examples.
4 Evaluate Different Perspectives acknowledge there are differentviews to your own give examples of historians views explain howyour view sits within the wider historiography What do Orthodoxhistorians think .
Orthodox historians believe that the USSR wasto blame These historians were writing in the1950s 1960s and their narrative was shaped bythat of the US government They argue that Communism was expansionist.
due to Marxist theory and that they wantedworld revolution against Capitalism Therefore they highlight Stalin s role in violatingYalta and Potsdam occupying Eastern Europe planning revolutions in China and Asia The USA.
had to act defensively through the TrumanDoctrine Marshall Plan and NATO What do Orthodoxhistorians think The most famous orthodox historian was Arthur.
M Schlesinger Jr who wrote the famous article Origins of the Cold War in Foreign Affairsmagazine 1967 Marxism Leninism gave the Russian leaders a viewof the world in which the existence of any non .
Communist state was by definition a threat to theSoviet Union Other orthodox historians have included WilliamH McNeill Herbert Feis and Jerald Combs Winston Churchill and George Kennan could also.
be considered shapers of the Orthodoxperspective What do Revisionisthistorians think A new perspective emerged during.
the 1960s when many Americansbegan to question the actions of theirown government over thecontroversial war in Vietnam They believed that the USA was.
responsible for the Cold War Theyargue that US policy was linked to theneeds of capitalism Containment was all about securingaccess to markets US was aggressive.
and wanted to dominate the post war What do Revisionisthistorians think The most famous revisionist writer is WilliamAppleman Williams who s book The Tragedy.
of American Diplomacy 1962 argued thatUS policy was a form of dollar diplomacy Other famous revisionists include Gabriel andJoyce Kolko Gar Alperowitz and Walter Gar Alperowitz has argued that the primary.
reason the atomic bomb was dropped onJapan was to scare the USSR What do Post Revisionisthistorians think A third perspective emerged in the 1970s and.
1980s that questioned both the orthodox andrevisionists US historian John Lewis Gaddis was a keyproponent of this school and he argued thatwar grew out of complex misconceptions on.
both sides Both sides failed to recognise the needs ofeach other and both overestimated thestrength of each side Long term factors madepeace between them difficult .
What do Post Cold War New historians think Since the end of the Cold War in 1989 manySoviet archives have been opened which haveallowed historians to see events from the.
Soviet perspective This has led to a growing consensus that bothsides were to blame but that Stalin really wasa crazy leader and his actions encouraged war The New historians using new evidence focus.
more on the role of individuals and theirideologies John Lewis Gaddis Daniel Yerginand Constantine Pleshakov The most famous orthodox historian was Arthur M. Schlesinger Jr. who wrote the famous article, ‘Origins of the Cold War’ in Foreign Affairs magazine (1967). ‘Marxism-Leninism gave the Russian leaders a view of the world in which the existence of any non-Communist state was by definition a threat to the Soviet Union…’

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